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1. Welcome to the World of Nagios

If you're reading this, the chances are that you've heard about Nagios and would like to jump right in and set up a monitoring system. If this is the case, you've come to right place. This document aims to assist users in installing, configuring, extending, troubleshooting and generally getting the most out of your Nagios system.

It must be said that the documentation that ships with Nagios is excellent, and there are many of good tutorials that already exist. This book was written to complement the existing documentation that is already out there, and even go a little further in some areas - especially for the beginners.

For the true beginners in the audience, you'll find I have created a nice set of step by step instructions, walking you through the process of building a server from scratch, installing Nagios and configuring Nagios to monitor a typical network.

Arguably the most useful source of Nagios information is the mailing list nagios-users. This list is frequented by expert Nagios developers and users alike and is *the* place to be if you're serious about Nagios. A great deal of information in this book has been obtained through the help of people on this list, I highly recommend subscribing and participating - to learn, and to help others learn. Almost every Nagios related question I've ever had has been answered and documented in the list archives. It's a good idea to check there before posting.

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2. Useful Nagios Resources

There are several places that you can find information on Nagios. Here are some places you should bookmark.

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3. Other Tutorials

If the steps contained in this document don’t work for you, or you’re having trouble (in either case, I’d like to know!), you might find the following tutorials helpful.

http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2002/09/05/nagios.html

http://www.section6.net/wiki/index.php/Setting_up_Nagios_in_FreeBSD

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Chapter 2. What is Nagios?

Table of Contents

1. About Nagios
2. Other Monitoring Options
3. Why Use Nagios?
4. Nagios Demo
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1. About Nagios

The complexity of modern networks and systems is somewhat astounding, as any experienced System Administrator will tell you. Even seemingly small networks found in many Small/Medium Enterprises (SME’s) can have extremely high levels of complexity in the systems they run.

Nagios was designed as a rock solid framework for monitoring, scheduling and alerting. Nagios contains some very powerful features, harnessing them is not only a matter of understanding how Nagios works, but also how the system you’re monitoring also works. This is an important realization. Nagios can’t automatically teach you about complex systems, but it will be an valuable tool to help you in your journey.

So what are the sorts of things Nagios can do? Nagios can do much more than this, but nevertheless here’s a list of common things that Nagios is used for.

The Nagios package doesn’t contain any checking tools (called plugins) at all. Does that statement sound crazy? Sure, but let me explain. Nagios focuses on doing what it does best - providing a robust, reliable and extensible framework for any type of check that a user can come up with.

So how does Nagios perform it’s checking? A huge number of plugins already exist that extend Nagios to perform every type of check imaginable. And if there isn’t an existing check that already exists, you’re free to write your own. The nagios-plugins package is separately maintained and can be downloaded from various sources. We will cover the Nagios plugins later on.

Ethan Galstad is the creator of Nagios. Karl DeBisschop, Subhendu Ghosh, Ton Voon, and Stanley Hopcroft are the main plugin developers. Many other people have contributed to the project over the years by submitting bug reports, patches, ideas, suggestions, add-ons, plugins, etc. A list of some of the contributors can be found at the Nagios website.

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2. Other Monitoring Options

As with anything, each tool has it’s own set of strengths and weaknesses. Some are the applications may seem similar, but are very different and range from full blown SNMP management solutions, to simple applications with not much flexibility. Big Brother, OpenNMS, OpenView and SysMon (there are dozens more) are often compared to Nagios, however they are quite different in many respects. In my travels as an IT professional, Nagios is the most commonly used monitoring tool by far. There are lots of specialist companies that offer monitoring as a service. A large number of these use Nagios.

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3. Why Use Nagios?

Nagios is an excellent choice if you want to perform any sort of monitoring. Nagios’ main strengths are:

Nagios can be used to monitor all sorts of things, here are some common things are typically monitored:

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4. Nagios Demo

The Nagios site maintains numerous screenshots that gives you a feel for the interface, however if you’d like to see Nagios in action, I’ve recorded a session where I shutdown an Apache service to simulate a problem. Nagios detects this problem and sends an email alert accordingly. It’s around 5 minutes long and will definitely give you a feel for Nagios.

Watch the demo now! (coming soon)

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Chapter 3. How Nagios Works

Table of Contents

1. A Typical Scenario
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1. A Typical Scenario

It’s very useful to conceptually understand how Nagios works. The following is a very simplified view on how Nagios works.

Nagios runs on a server, usually as a daemon (or service). Nagios periodically run plugins residing (usually) on the same server, they contact (PING etc.) hosts and servers on your network or on the Internet. You can also have information sent to Nagios. You then view the status information using the web interface. You can also receive email or SMS notifications if something happens. Event Handlers can also be configured to "act" if something happens.

IMAGE

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Chapter 4. Preparing for Installation

Table of Contents

1. Getting Ready
2. Selecting an Operating System
3. Setting Up The Server - FreeBSD
4. Useful FreeBSD Commands
5. Installing Apache
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1. Getting Ready

For the cost of hardware these days, I usually recommend running a dedicated server.

One complaint I often here from users (usually new to Linux/Unix or Open Source), is that Nagios is difficult to configure. The Nagios Book aims to dispel this myth, showing you how to build a Nagios server from scratch monitoring several hosts and sending alerts in a matter of hours. Note that it's not a competition when it comes to setting up any server, however I've heard reports of people complaining of taking days and even weeks to set up a Nagios server. This is simply not true, as you will find out!

Please note that this document does not explain the how's and why's of how to build a server, that is beyond the scope of this material. My goal is to try and get users up and running quickly so they can experience the power of Nagios. Having said that, I have created some basic steps to build a FreeBSD server from scratch.

These instructions were written and tested using FreeBSD 6.0, however they should also work just as well on earlier versions. If you're using Linux, some steps may be slightly different. I hope to add steps for each popular distro very soon.

I plan to add some other distro specific information here eventually. If you have installation notes for another platform, I'll gladly add it.

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2. Selecting an Operating System

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3. Setting Up The Server - FreeBSD

Tip

The FreeBSD project already have a very thorough and complete set of documentation covering how to install FreeBSD. I know the following section is rough, it's only included since it was requested. I highly recommend reading the fine documentation at http://www.freebsd.org/docs.html.

Burn a copy of the boot CD (http://www.freebsd.org).

Reboot with the CD in your drive, make sure your BIOS is set to boot off of CDROM first.

Sysinstall (the FreeBSD System Installer) will run.

Select "Standard"

FDISK Partition Editor - Slices

d - Delete any existing "slices" (any data will be destroyed).

c - Create a new slice, the defaults will be fine.

s - Set that slice to be bootable.

q - Save the changes and quit.

Boot Manager

Select standard, as long as you don't have any other OS' on that disk. This means the disk will boot straight into FreeBSD.

Disk Label Editor

c - Create partitions

a - Use auto defaults (you are free to enter your own values if you wish)

q - Save the changes and quit.

Choose Distribution

Select Minimal.

Install Method?

FTP

Choosing a local mirror. Since you'll be installing via FTP, a quick connection means everything.

Choose Network Card. The default should be ok.

IP 6 = No

Perform as Gateway = No

Enter your network settings here, you must know your gateway (probably your router) and your DNS server (probably provided by your ISP).

SSH = Yes

Inetd = No

DHCP = No

FTP = No

NFS Server = No

NFS Client = No

System Console = No

Time Zone = Yes

Linux Binary Compatibility = No

Mouse = No

Packages = No

Create User = Yes

Exit Install

Remove CDROM and reboot.

Then you MUST install the port tree.

Login as root, then run sysinstall.

Configure > Distributions > Ports (and perhaps the Man pages)

Go grab a coffee!

Make sure you update the locate database (this is mentioned in the next chapter) once the ports are installed, this will make your life much easier.

You now have a fully functioning FreeBSD server with the latest ports ready to be easily installed. I highly recommend that you make sure you keep your FreeBSD system updated.

Upgrading the System

(coming soon)

Portupgrade

(coming soon)

[I'm still working on the most efficient and easiest way to display this]

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4. Useful FreeBSD Commands

If you've come from a Windows background, here are a few commands that will help you find your way around.

Finding Files Using FreeBSD

Make sure the locate database is updated after you install packages. This will let you find files that have been recently installed.

Update the locate database:

#/usr/libexec/locate.updatedb

Now you can find files by running the locate command, an example is listed below.

# locate check_oracle
/usr/local/libexec/nagios/check_oracle
/usr/ports/net-mgmt/nagios-plugins/work/nagios-plugins-1.4/contrib/check_oracle_instance.pl
/usr/ports/net-mgmt/nagios-plugins/work/nagios-plugins-1.4/contrib/check_oracle_tbs
/usr/ports/net-mgmt/nagios-plugins/work/nagios-plugins-1.4/plugins-scripts/check_oracle
/usr/ports/net-mgmt/nagios-plugins/work/nagios-plugins-1.4/plugins-scripts/check_oracle.sh

You probably won't have check_oracle on your system yet, this is just to illustrate how the command works.

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5. Installing Apache

You can install Apache 2 or 1.3, both work equally well. I have chosen to install Apache 2.

cd /usr/ports/www/apache2
make
make install
make clean

Edit ServerName, use an IP if not using a real (DNS listed, or FQDN) domain name.

ee /usr/local/etc/apache2/httpd.conf

Some users might have to comment out the following line referencing "mod_unique_id" if Apache won't load (check your logs). More info coming!

monitor# /usr/local/sbin/apachectl start
/usr/local/sbin/apachectl start: httpd started

monitor# ps -aux | grep httpd
root   8368  0.0  0.2  2500  2100  ??  Ss   12:37PM   0:00.02 /usr/local/sbin/httpd
www    8369  0.0  0.2  2884  2320  ??  I    12:37PM   0:00.00 /usr/local/sbin/httpd
www    8370  0.0  0.2  2512  2124  ??  I    12:37PM   0:00.00 /usr/local/sbin/httpd
www    8371  0.0  0.2  2512  2124  ??  I    12:37PM   0:00.00 /usr/local/sbin/httpd
www    8372  0.0  0.2  2512  2124  ??  I    12:37PM   0:00.00 /usr/local/sbin/httpd
www    8373  0.0  0.2  2512  2124  ??  I    12:37PM   0:00.00 /usr/local/sbin/httpd
www    8374  0.0  0.2  2512  2124  ??  I    12:37PM   0:00.00 /usr/local/sbin/httpd

Good, it's running. Now you must add Apache to rc.conf so it's starts at boot time.

ee /etc/rc.conf

Then add:

apache2_enable="YES"

Visit the IP address of your server (i.e. http://192.168.1.10 or whatever IP you used) , you should be greeted with the default Apache welcome page as shown below.

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Chapter 5. Installing Nagios

Table of Contents

1. Obtaining Nagios
2. Knowing Where Nagios Lives
3. Telling Apache about Nagios
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1. Obtaining Nagios

OK, so you know all about what Nagios can do, it’s time to get on with it and choose an installation method.

You have two main choices when installing Nagios:

For most users, your OS’ native package management tool will be the easiest method of installing Nagios. You will find Nagios in all common package repositories such as RPM, apt-get, Ports etc. Note that some package collections will have several versions of Nagios, you may have to specify which version you want. Most common package collections will be fairly current.

Always consult your package documentation, this will usually contain information specific to your OS (both flavour and version!). No tutorial or guide could possibly cover every version, installation and configuration.

You can download the latest tarball and the RPM’s from:

http://www.nagios.org/download

But wait, if you're using FreeBSD, you don't have to. You can use the Ports Collection.

Tip

The FreeBSD Ports Collection provides an easy way of installing and updating software. Visit www.freebsd.org/docs for more information on using the Ports system.

If you're using another Operating Sytem and you’ve installed Nagios, you may also need to install the Nagios-Plugins package. Using FreeBSD you can install Nagios and the Nagios Plugins package from the ports collection by running the following commands. With previous FreeBSD ports of Nagios, you had to install the plugins separately, now it's all installed at once.

# cd /usr/ports/net-mgmt/nagios/
# make
# make install
# make clean

Note, this will install Nagios version 2 (at the time of writing, it's still in Beta).

I recommend selecting SNMP when prompted as shown below.

If you are using a package management tool, it should be fairly straightforward, but please read the package notes, they are there for a reason. If you're installing from source, read the documentation. It’s very thorough.

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2. Knowing Where Nagios Lives

One thing I highly recommend (especially for new BSD users) is to update your locate database as described earlier, and run locate nagios. This will show you the exact paths where Nagios is installed. You will need this information later. The following commands will save this information into text files for your reference; perhaps you might find it useful to print them.

List all file locations:

locate nagios | grep -v /usr/ports | grep -v /var/db > nagios_file_locations_FULL.txt

List a trimmed down version of locations:

locate nagios | grep -v /usr/ports | grep -v /var/db | grep -v /usr/local/share/nagios/ | grep -v /usr/local/libexec/nagios/ > nagios_file_locations_TRIMMED.txt

Here is the output of the trimmed version:

/usr/local/bin/nagios
/usr/local/bin/nagiostats
/usr/local/etc/nagios
/usr/local/etc/nagios/cgi.cfg
/usr/local/etc/nagios/checkcommands.cfg
/usr/local/etc/nagios/minimal.cfg
/usr/local/etc/nagios/misccommands.cfg
/usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg
/usr/local/etc/nagios/resource.cfg
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples/bigger.cfg-sample
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples/cgi.cfg-sample
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples/checkcommands.cfg-sample
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples/minimal.cfg-sample
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples/misccommands.cfg-sample
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples/nagios.cfg-sample
/usr/local/etc/nagios/samples/resource.cfg-sample
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/nagios.sh
/usr/local/libexec/nagios
/usr/local/share/nagios
/var/mail/nagios
/var/spool/nagios
/var/spool/nagios/archives
/var/spool/nagios/comments.dat
/var/spool/nagios/downtime.dat
/var/spool/nagios/nagios.lock
/var/spool/nagios/nagios.log
/var/spool/nagios/objects.cache
/var/spool/nagios/retention.dat
/var/spool/nagios/rw
/var/spool/nagios/status.dat
/var/spool/nagios/status.sav

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3. Telling Apache about Nagios

Note: If you installed Nagios by a package manager, or it is preinstalled by your distro you may not have to do this step.

Add the following to httpd.conf (your path might be different depending on the OS and version of Apache, remember to use locate if you get stuck):

# ee /usr/local/etc/apache2/httpd.conf

Then copy and paste the text below:

ScriptAlias /nagios/cgi-bin /usr/local/share/nagios/cgi-bin
<Directory "/usr/local/share/nagios/cgi-bin">
    AllowOverride AuthConfig
    Options ExecCGI
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
</Directory>

Alias /nagios /usr/local/share/nagios
<Directory "/usr/local/share/nagios">
    Options None
    AllowOverride AuthConfig
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
</Directory>

Please note the paths for FreeBSD are slightly different from the Nagios docs (it's a Linux/BSD thing).

# /usr/local/sbin/apachectl restart

You should now be able to visit the IP/nagios (eg. http://192.168.0.10/nagios) of your server and you should see the Nagios navigation. You will (and should) note that Nagios isn't actually running yet. We still have to configure Nagios.

One the plus side, you should now be able to access the Nagios documentation locally on your Nagios server.

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Chapter 6. Configuring Nagios

Table of Contents

1. Editing Config Files Manually
2. Configuration Front Ends
3. Getting Started
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1. Editing Config Files Manually

The standard way most people configure Nagios is by simply copying the samples included and modify them with a text editor as needed. Setting up Nagios to monitor even a modest sized network is where most of the work lies. Even though it does take some work, the Nagios configuration files can be "streamlined" using includes and object definitions, this is covered in a separate topic.

I will be covering how to configure Nagios using a text editor. Since we’ll be using FreeBSD, my editor of choice is ee. You can use vi, joe, pico or even Notepad on Windows (via FTP or SCP) if you wish.

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2. Configuration Front Ends

Configuration Front Ends

I'm currently trying several third party tools that exist, below are my initial findings. Keep in mind some of them are early on in development and are a little rough. Some of these tools require extra software on your server and take some work themselves to configure. My instructions don't cover using these tools, but I hope to expand this chapter once I have time to experiment.

Nagmin

Monarch

Monarch is a very slick looking interface for Nagios. I haven't installed it yet, I hope to soon. One appealing factor in choosing this tool would be the excellent documentation.

NagiosWeb

The tool NagiosWeb looks very promising. It uses a MySQL database to store your host/service information, and then writes that to the config files. NagiosWeb adds a few extra menu items to the main Nagios navigation, so access is very handy. I ran into a few problems with the code, so I have abandoned this tool for now. I might come back to it at a later date.

NagioSQL

NagioSQL is another web configuration interface for Nagios. I haven't installed this yet, however it seems to be popular among users.

Simple Config

This is a little PHP application that builds Nagios configurations for you to copy and paste into your config files. Perhaps not as sophisticated as the other options, but it's simple and it works!

If there are any other tools that you come across not listed here, let me know and I'll try to get around to trying them.

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3. Getting Started

Some people freak out at this part, but this is where the fun starts. It's where you get to configure the actual server and hosts (among other things).

Tip

If you're really against editing the files manually (or have a very large network), there is a Perl script called nmap2nagios.pl that can be downloaded from SourceForge. If you're installing nmap2nagios.pl, you may have to force install the XML::Simple Perl module (well I have to on FreeBSD 5.4, 6.0 and OS X) which is a dependency.

monitor# cd /usr/local/etc/nagios/
monitor# ls -al
total 104
drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel    512 Nov  7 17:56 .
drwxr-xr-x  6 root  wheel    512 Nov  8 12:17 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  30046 Nov  7 17:56 bigger.cfg-sample
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   9569 Nov  7 17:56 cgi.cfg-sample
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   4475 Nov  7 17:56 checkcommands.cfg-sample
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  13602 Nov  7 17:56 minimal.cfg-sample
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   4297 Nov  7 17:56 misccommands.cfg-sample
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  30735 Nov  7 17:56 nagios.cfg-sample
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   1335 Nov  7 17:56 resource.cfg-sample

You will notice that all the config files are there ready to use, all you have to do is rename them to .cfg rather than sample. The structure and use of the config files is covered thoroughly in the Nagios documentation. To keep things simple, we'll be using a basic configuration using the minimal.cfg.

Manually backup files into a separate directory, to reduce clutter and rename the samples to make them the live config files.

monitor# mkdir samples
monitor# cp * /samples/*
monitor# ls
bigger.cfg-sample               checkcommands.cfg-sample        misccommands.cfg-sample         resource.cfg-sample
cgi.cfg-sample                  minimal.cfg-sample              nagios.cfg-sample               samples
monitor# mv bigger.cfg-sample bigger.cfg 
monitor# mv cgi.cfg-sample cgi.cfg
monitor# mv checkcommands.cfg-sample checkcommands.cfg
monitor# mv minimal.cfg-sample minimal.cfg
monitor# mv misccommands.cfg-sample misccommands.cfg
monitor# mv nagios.cfg-sample nagios.cfg
monitor# mv resource.cfg-sample resource.cfg
monitor# ls -al
total 76
drwxr-xr-x  3 root  wheel    512 Nov  9 16:24 .
drwxr-xr-x  6 root  wheel    512 Nov  8 12:17 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  30046 Nov  7 17:56 bigger.cfg
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   9569 Nov  7 17:56 cgi.cfg
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   4475 Nov  7 17:56 checkcommands.cfg
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  13602 Nov  7 17:56 minimal.cfg
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   4297 Nov  7 17:56 misccommands.cfg
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  30735 Nov  7 17:56 nagios.cfg
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel   1335 Nov  7 17:56 resource.cfg
drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel    512 Nov  9 16:22 samples

Now we have all the files in place, we're almost there. All we have to do is edit a few files to configure our system and to tell Nagios about what we want to monitor. There are only 3 files you need to edit to get a minimal system up and running.

Tip

If you're using FreeBSD, all of the Nagios config files are located in: /usr/local/etc/nagios

nagios.cfg

Open nagios.cfg and make the following changes:

Comment out the following lines.

#cfg_file=/usr/local/etc/nagios/checkcommands.cfg
#cfg_file=/usr/local/etc/nagios/misccommands.cfg

minimal.cfg

Open minimal.cfg and make the following changes:

###############################################################################
# MINIMAL.CFG
#
# MINIMALISTIC OBJECT CONFIG FILE (Template-Based Object File Format)
#
# Last Modified: 03-23-2005
#
#
# NOTE: This config file is intended to be used to test a Nagios installation
#       that has been compiled with support for the template-based object
#       configuration files.
#
#       This config file is intended to servce as an *extremely* simple 
#       example of how you can create your object configuration file(s).
#       If you're interested in more complex object configuration files for
#       Nagios, look in the sample-config/template-object/ subdirectory of
#       the distribution.
#
###############################################################################



###############################################################################
###############################################################################
#
# TIME PERIODS
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

# This defines a timeperiod where all times are valid for checks, 
# notifications, etc.  The classic "24x7" support nightmare. :-)

define timeperiod{
        timeperiod_name 24x7
        alias           24 Hours A Day, 7 Days A Week
        sunday          00:00-24:00
        monday          00:00-24:00
        tuesday         00:00-24:00
        wednesday       00:00-24:00
        thursday        00:00-24:00
        friday          00:00-24:00
        saturday        00:00-24:00
        }



###############################################################################
###############################################################################
#
# COMMANDS
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

# This is a sample service notification command that can be used to send email 
# notifications (about service alerts) to contacts.

define command{
	command_name	notify-by-email
	command_line	/usr/bin/printf "%b" "***** Nagios @VERSION@ *****\n\nNotification Type: $NOTIFICATIONTYPE$\n\nService: $SERVICEDESC$\nHost: $HOSTALIAS$\nAddress: $HOSTADDRESS$\nState: $SERVICESTATE$\n\nDate/Time: $LONGDATETIME$\n\nAdditional Info:\n\n$OUTPUT$" | @MAIL_PROG@ -s "** $NOTIFICATIONTYPE$ alert - $HOSTALIAS$/$SERVICEDESC$ is $SERVICESTATE$ **" $CONTACTEMAIL$
	}


# This is a sample host notification command that can be used to send email 
# notifications (about host alerts) to contacts.

define command{
	command_name	host-notify-by-email
	command_line	/usr/bin/printf "%b" "***** Nagios @VERSION@ *****\n\nNotification Type: $NOTIFICATIONTYPE$\nHost: $HOSTNAME$\nState: $HOSTSTATE$\nAddress: $HOSTADDRESS$\nInfo: $OUTPUT$\n\nDate/Time: $LONGDATETIME$\n" | @MAIL_PROG@ -s "Host $HOSTSTATE$ alert for $HOSTNAME$!" $CONTACTEMAIL$
	}


# Command to check to see if a host is "alive" (up) by pinging it

define command{
        command_name    check-host-alive
        command_line    $USER1$/check_ping -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -w 99,99% -c 100,100% -p 1 
        }


# Generic command to check a device by pinging it

define command{
	command_name	check_ping
	command_line	$USER1$/check_ping -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -w $ARG1$ -c $ARG2$ -p 5
	}


# Command used to check disk space usage on local partitions

define command{
	command_name	check_local_disk
	command_line	$USER1$/check_disk -w $ARG1$ -c $ARG2$ -p $ARG3$
	}


# Command used to check the number of currently logged in users on the
# local machine

define command{
	command_name	check_local_users
	command_line	$USER1$/check_users -w $ARG1$ -c $ARG2$
	}


# Command to check the number of running processing on the local machine

define command{
	command_name	check_local_procs
	command_line	$USER1$/check_procs -w $ARG1$ -c $ARG2$
	}


# Command to check the load on the local machine

define command{
	command_name	check_local_load
	command_line	$USER1$/check_load -w $ARG1$ -c $ARG2$
	}



###############################################################################
###############################################################################
#
# CONTACTS
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

# In this simple config file, a single contact will receive all alerts.
# This assumes that you have an account (or email alias) called
# "@nagios_user@-admin" on the local host.

define contact{
        contact_name                    chrisb
        alias                           Chris Burgess 
        service_notification_period     24x7
        host_notification_period        24x7
        service_notification_options    w,u,c,r
        host_notification_options       d,r
        service_notification_commands   notify-by-email
        host_notification_commands      host-notify-by-email
        email                           chris.burgess@nagiosbook.org
        }



###############################################################################
###############################################################################
#
# CONTACT GROUPS
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

# We only have one contact in this simple configuration file, so there is
# no need to create more than one contact group.

define contactgroup{
        contactgroup_name       admins
        alias                   Nagios Administrators
        members                 chrisb
        }



###############################################################################
###############################################################################
#
# HOSTS
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

# Generic host definition template - This is NOT a real host, just a template!

define host{
        name                            generic-host    ; The name of this host template
        notifications_enabled           1       ; Host notifications are enabled
        event_handler_enabled           1       ; Host event handler is enabled
        flap_detection_enabled          1       ; Flap detection is enabled
        failure_prediction_enabled      1       ; Failure prediction is enabled
        process_perf_data               1       ; Process performance data
        retain_status_information       1       ; Retain status information across program restarts
        retain_nonstatus_information    1       ; Retain non-status information across program restarts
        register                        0       ; DONT REGISTER THIS DEFINITION - ITS NOT A REAL HOST, JUST A TEMPLATE!
        }


# Since this is a simple configuration file, we only monitor one host - the
# local host (this machine).

define host{
        use                     generic-host            ; Name of host template to use
        host_name               localhost
        alias                   localhost
        address                 127.0.0.1
        check_command           check-host-alive
        max_check_attempts      10
        notification_interval   120
        notification_period     24x7
        notification_options    d,r
        contact_groups  admins
        }

define host{
        use                     generic-host            ; Name of host template to use
        host_name               intranet       
        alias                   Intranet Server
        address                 192.168.1.99
        check_command           check-host-alive
        max_check_attempts      10
        notification_interval   120
        notification_period     24x7
        notification_options    d,r
        contact_groups  admins
        }



###############################################################################
###############################################################################
#
# HOST GROUPS
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

# We only have one host in our simple config file, so there is no need to
# create more than one hostgroup.

define hostgroup{
        hostgroup_name  test
        alias           Test Servers
        members         localhost,intranet
        }



###############################################################################
###############################################################################
#
# SERVICES
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

# Generic service definition template - This is NOT a real service, just a template!

define service{
        name                            generic-service ; The 'name' of this service template
        active_checks_enabled           1       ; Active service checks are enabled
        passive_checks_enabled          1       ; Passive service checks are enabled/accepted
        parallelize_check               1       ; Active service checks should be parallelized (disabling this can lead to major performance problems)
        obsess_over_service             1       ; We should obsess over this service (if necessary)
        check_freshness                 0       ; Default is to NOT check service 'freshness'
        notifications_enabled           1       ; Service notifications are enabled
        event_handler_enabled           1       ; Service event handler is enabled
        flap_detection_enabled          1       ; Flap detection is enabled
        failure_prediction_enabled      1       ; Failure prediction is enabled
        process_perf_data               1       ; Process performance data
        retain_status_information       1       ; Retain status information across program restarts
        retain_nonstatus_information    1       ; Retain non-status information across program restarts
        register                        0       ; DONT REGISTER THIS DEFINITION - ITS NOT A REAL SERVICE, JUST A TEMPLATE!
        }


# Define a service to "ping" the local machine

define service{
        use                             generic-service         ; Name of service template to use
        host_name                       localhost, intranet
        service_description             PING
        is_volatile                     0
        check_period                    24x7
        max_check_attempts              4
        normal_check_interval           5
        retry_check_interval            1
        contact_groups                  admins
        notification_interval           960
        notification_period             24x7
	check_command			check_ping!100.0,20%!500.0,60%
        }


# Define a service to check the disk space of the root partition
# on the local machine.  Warning if < 20% free, critical if
# < 10% free space on partition.

define service{
        use                             generic-service         ; Name of service template to use
        host_name                       localhost
        service_description             Root Partition
        is_volatile                     0
        check_period                    24x7
        max_check_attempts              4
        normal_check_interval           5
        retry_check_interval            1
        contact_groups                  admins
        notification_interval           960
        notification_period             24x7
	check_command			check_local_disk!20%!10%!/
        }



# Define a service to check the number of currently logged in
# users on the local machine.  Warning if > 20 users, critical
# if > 50 users.

define service{
        use                             generic-service         ; Name of service template to use
        host_name                       localhost
        service_description             Current Users
        is_volatile                     0
        check_period                    24x7
        max_check_attempts              4
        normal_check_interval           5
        retry_check_interval            1
        contact_groups                  admins
        notification_interval           960
        notification_period             24x7
	check_command			check_local_users!20!50
        }


# Define a service to check the number of currently running procs
# on the local machine.  Warning if > 250 processes, critical if
# > 400 users.

define service{
        use                             generic-service         ; Name of service template to use
        host_name                       localhost
        service_description             Total Processes
        is_volatile                     0
        check_period                    24x7
        max_check_attempts              4
        normal_check_interval           5
        retry_check_interval            1
        contact_groups                  admins
        notification_interval           960
        notification_period             24x7
	check_command			check_local_procs!250!400
        }



# Define a service to check the load on the local machine. 

define service{
        use                             generic-service         ; Name of service template to use
        host_name                       localhost
        service_description             Current Load
        is_volatile                     0
        check_period                    24x7
        max_check_attempts              4
        normal_check_interval           5
        retry_check_interval            1
        contact_groups                  admins
        notification_interval           960
        notification_period             24x7
	check_command			check_local_load!5.0,4.0,3.0!10.0,6.0,4.0
        }



# EOF

cgi.cfg (optional)

Turn off Authentication for the CGI's when getting started. After you can view the web interface and everything is working, then turn Authentication on. This section is totally optional, however it does eliminate authentication problems (which are common for some beginners) during the configuration stage.

Open cgi.cfg and make the following changes:

use_authentication=1

change to

use_authentication=0

Warning

It is a very bad idea to permanently disable authentication. The documentation covers the topic in an incredibly thorough fashion. It is however, worth knowing that this option exists when you're initially configuring Nagios.

resources.cfg

$USER1$=/usr/local/libexec/nagios

You should now be able to run a pre-flight check with success. You should get something like the following.

monitor# /usr/local/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg

Nagios 2.0b3
Copyright (c) 1999-2005 Ethan Galstad (www.nagios.org)
Last Modified: 04-03-2005
License: GPL

Reading configuration data...

Running pre-flight check on configuration data...

Checking services...
        Checked 6 services.
Checking hosts...
        Checked 2 hosts.
Checking host groups...
        Checked 1 host groups.
Checking service groups...
        Checked 0 service groups.
Checking contacts...
        Checked 1 contacts.
Checking contact groups...
        Checked 1 contact groups.
Checking service escalations...
        Checked 0 service escalations.
Checking service dependencies...
        Checked 0 service dependencies.
Checking host escalations...
        Checked 0 host escalations.
Checking host dependencies...
        Checked 0 host dependencies.
Checking commands...
        Checked 8 commands.
Checking time periods...
        Checked 1 time periods.
Checking extended host info definitions...
        Checked 0 extended host info definitions.
Checking extended service info definitions...
        Checked 0 extended service info definitions.
Checking for circular paths between hosts...
Checking for circular host and service dependencies...
Checking global event handlers...
Checking obsessive compulsive processor commands...
Checking misc settings...

Total Warnings: 0
Total Errors:   0

Things look okay - No serious problems were detected during the pre-flight check

Now, let's start nagios and see what happens!

monitor# /usr/local/bin/nagios /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg &
[1] 13274
monitor# 
Nagios 2.0b3
Copyright (c) 1999-2005 Ethan Galstad (www.nagios.org)
Last Modified: 04-03-2005
License: GPL

Nagios 2.0b3 starting... (PID=13274)

Let's run ps and grep to make sure it's running.

monitor# ps -aux | grep nagios
nagios 13274  0.0  0.2  3348  2456  p0  S     4:54PM   0:00.05 /usr/local/bin/nagios /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg

Tail the nagios log to check for errors.

monitor# tail -f /var/spool/nagios/nagios.log 
[1131555251] Nagios 2.0b3 starting... (PID=13274)
[1131555251] LOG VERSION: 2.0
[1131555261] HOST ALERT: intranet;UP;HARD;1;PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.24 ms
[1131555261] HOST NOTIFICATION: chrisb;intranet;UP;host-notify-by-email;PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.24 ms
[1131555261] SERVICE ALERT: intranet;PING;OK;SOFT;1;PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.25 ms

All looks good! Now let's visit the URL for the web interface. Fire up Firefox and go to your IP address.

Someone pointed out this isn't necessary, although it was for me. Check the permissions carefully.

chown and chrgp the /var/spool/nagios dir and files

and the plugins...

monitor# chmod 755 *

monitor# chgrp wheel *

monitor# chown root *

More on this soon...

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Chapter 7. Starting Nagios

Table of Contents

1. Making Sure Nagios Starts Automatically
2. The Pre-Flight Check
3. The –s Switch
4. Help!
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1. Making Sure Nagios Starts Automatically

You will probably want Nagios to start automatically when your system boots. You do this by editing /etc/rc.conf.

Add Nagios to rc.conf (this means the file /usr/local/etc/rc.d/nagios.sh gets loaded at boot time):

# ee /etc/rc.conf

Then add the following entry:

nagios_enable="YES"

Warning

If you're working on a remote system, be careful editing your rc.conf file. Errors could cause the system to fail to boot. It's happened to me more than once!

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2. The Pre-Flight Check

(I've already covered some of these commands, I plan to go over this section and tidy it up!)

Run a pre-flight check to verify configuration:

# /usr/local/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg

It's also worth mentioning that if something goes wrong and you need to make changes, there is no need to restart the server, you can start Nagios manually by running the following command:

# /usr/local/bin/nagios /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg &

Check to make sure Nagios is running:

monitor# ps -aux | grep nagios

You can kill Nagios which will flush the config as an alternative to rebooting. You must replace PID with the actual process ID obtained from ps -aux.

monitor# kill -HUP PID

Running Nagios without any switches displays the following output.

monitor# nagios

Nagios 2.0b3
Copyright (c) 1999-2005 Ethan Galstad (www.nagios.org)
Last Modified: 04-03-2005
License: GPL

Usage: nagios [option] <main_config_file>

Options:

  -v   Reads all data in the configuration files and performs a basic
       verification/sanity check.  Always make sure you verify your
       config data before (re)starting Nagios.

  -s   Shows projected/recommended check scheduling information based
       on the current data in the configuration files.

  -d   Starts Nagios in daemon mode (instead of as a foreground process).
       This is the recommended way of starting Nagios for normal operation.

Visit the Nagios website at http://www.nagios.org for bug fixes, new
releases, online documentation, FAQs, information on subscribing to
the mailing lists, and commercial and contract support for Nagios.
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3. The –s Switch

monitor# /usr/local/bin/nagios -s /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg

Nagios 2.0b3
Copyright (c) 1999-2005 Ethan Galstad (www.nagios.org)
Last Modified: 04-03-2005
License: GPL

Projected scheduling information for host and service
checks is listed below.  This information assumes that
you are going to start running Nagios with your current
config files.

HOST SCHEDULING INFORMATION
---------------------------
Total hosts:                     11
Total scheduled hosts:           0
Host inter-check delay method:   SMART
Average host check interval:     0.00 sec
Host inter-check delay:          0.00 sec
Max host check spread:           30 min
First scheduled check:           N/A
Last scheduled check:            N/A


SERVICE SCHEDULING INFORMATION
-------------------------------
Total services:                     15
Total scheduled services:           15
Service inter-check delay method:   SMART
Average service check interval:     300.00 sec
Inter-check delay:                  20.00 sec
Interleave factor method:           SMART
Average services per host:          1.36
Service interleave factor:          2
Max service check spread:           30 min
First scheduled check:              Mon Nov 21 11:21:52 2005
Last scheduled check:               Mon Nov 21 11:26:32 2005


CHECK PROCESSING INFORMATION
----------------------------
Service check reaper interval:      10 sec
Max concurrent service checks:      Unlimited


PERFORMANCE SUGGESTIONS
-----------------------
I have no suggestions - things look okay.
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4. Help!

If Nagios won't start, fear not. Go to the the chapter titled Troubleshooting. If you're still stuck, try asking the nagios-users list. As always, copying the error message into Google usually always pays off.

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Chapter 8. Nagios Plugins

Table of Contents

1. The Standard Plugins
2. The Contrib Plugins
3. Other Plugins
4. Writing Your Own Plugins
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1. The Standard Plugins

Check SSH

Add the following command definition:

# check_ssh

define command{

command_name check_ssh

command_line $USER1$/check_ssh -H $HOSTADDRESS$

}

Then add the following service defintion:

define service{

use generic-service

host_name *

service_description SSH

is_volatile 0

check_period 24x7

max_check_attempts 3

normal_check_interval 5

retry_check_interval 1

contact_groups admins

notification_interval 120

notification_period 24x7

notification_options w,u,c,r

check_command check_ssh

}

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2. The Contrib Plugins

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3. Other Plugins

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4. Writing Your Own Plugins

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Chapter 9. Monitoring Remote Unix Servers

Table of Contents

1. NPRE
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1. NPRE

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Chapter 10. Monitoring Remote Windows Servers

Table of Contents

1. NSClient
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1. NSClient

There are several ways to achieve this, however I choose to use NSclient. Each method has it’s own set of pros and cons and it really depends on what you want to monitor and what you are familiar with. Install NSClient on the Windows server. The NSClient documentation lists the text you have to add to your service checks. (more info coming)

You can then monitor any service, along with typical local resources such as disk, cpu and memory usage.

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Chapter 11. Configuring Alerts and Notifications

Table of Contents

1. Email Notifications
2. Sendmail
3. SSMTP
4. SMS Alerts
5. Pagers, Popups and Other Messaging
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1. Email Notifications

There are several ways get your mail alerts to work. It all depends what you're more comfortable with and whether this particular server is going to be used for anything else.

Your options are (to name a few)

* Configure the default install of Sendmail

* Replace Sendmail with Nullmailer or SSMTP

* Install another MTA like Postfix, QMail or Exim

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2. Sendmail

I will not cover configuring Sendmail, however the FreeBSD website has some information in the FreeBSD Handbook that might be useful.

http://www5.ua.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/outgoing-only.html

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3. SSMTP

I choose to replace Sendmail with SSMTP.

monitor# cd /usr/ports/mail/ssmtp
monitor# make install replace clean
monitor# cd /usr/local/etc/ssmtp
monitor# ls
revaliases.sample       ssmtp.conf.sample
monitor# cp revaliases.sample revaliases
monitor# cp ssmtp.conf.sample ssmtp.conf
monitor# ls
revaliases              revaliases.sample       ssmtp.conf              ssmtp.conf.sample

Now edit the SSMTP configuration file.

monitor# ee /usr/local/etc/ssmtp/ssmtp.conf

Below is my sample configuration, the config file is commented if you need another example.

mailhub=192.168.0.2 (this will be a mail server you can send mail through, can be IP or FQDN)
rewriteDomain=nagiosbook.org
hostname=monitor

Make sure you disable Sendmail by editing /etc//rc.conf and adding the following directives. (This is for FeebSD version 5 or later)

# ee /etc/rc.conf
sendmail_enable="NO"
sendmail_submit_enable="NO"
sendmail_outbound_enable="NO"
sendmail_msp_queue_enable="NO"

Test to make sure you can send mail by:

mail -s "Test" root
<ctrl-d>

You should now be able to send email from your Nagios server.

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4. SMS Alerts

Like email alerts, you have several options to getting this working.

Your options are:

Enabling an SMS service on your Nagios server

Using your own SMS gateway on another server

Using a commercial third party SMS gateway

There are several tools you can use to enable a server to send SMS's. Each tools has it's own strengths and weaknesses. The following list should help you decide what to use.

* Gnokii - Gnokii is very popular and can be used as a full-featured 2-way SMS gateway.

* SMSTools - An alternative to Gnokii, also popular and heavily documented.

* SMSClient - Calls a provider by modem and sends SMS's only.

If you'd like to build your own SMS gateway using Gnokii, I wrote a "SMS Gateway How To" a few years ago. You can read the original article here (http://www.chrisburgess.com.au/sms-gateway-how-to/), or read on for the simplified steps. I am assuming you are using the same server to run both Nagios and Gnokii.

Installing and Configuring Gnokii for SMS Alerts

cd /usr/ports/comms/gnokii

make install clean

MORE STEPS FOR GNOKII COMING SOON

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5. Pagers, Popups and Other Messaging

If you’d prefer another messaging type, the Nagios mail list archives mention all sorts of methods people use.

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Chapter 12. Optimizing and Enhancing Nagios

Table of Contents

1. Organizing Your Config Files
2. Configuring Layout and Dependencies
3. Improving Logical Layout
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1. Organizing Your Config Files

So far, we've modified the sample file called minimal.cfg (originally minimal.sample). Using the minimal sample is ideal for getting started, and by all means, you're free to use run Nagios in that configuration if you wish. At this stage however, it's worth pointing out that you can split your configurations into separate config files to help make things more manageable.

Straight from the documentation, we can see how this works:

# You can also tell Nagios to process all config files (with a .cfg

# extension) in a particular directory by using the cfg_dir

# directive as shown below:

#cfg_dir=/usr/local/etc/nagios/servers

#cfg_dir=/usr/local/etc/nagios/printers

#cfg_dir=/usr/local/etc/nagios/switches

#cfg_dir=/usr/local/etc/nagios/routers

Here are some other examples that should give you some ideas:

Device Types

/usr/local/etc/nagios/routers

/usr/local/etc/nagios/switches

/usr/local/etc/nagios/printers

Function Type

/usr/local/etc/nagios/mailservers

/usr/local/etc/nagios/winservers

/usr/local/etc/nagios/unixservers

Topological Location

/usr/local/etc/nagios/intranet

/usr/local/etc/nagios/extranet

/usr/local/etc/nagios/border

/usr/local/etc/nagios/dmz

Physical Location

/usr/local/etc/nagios/building-1

/usr/local/etc/nagios/building-2

/usr/local/etc/nagios/building-3

/usr/local/etc/nagios/building-4

Departmental Layout

/usr/local/etc/nagios/creative

/usr/local/etc/nagios/accounts

/usr/local/etc/nagios/sales

/usr/local/etc/nagios/it

/usr/local/etc/nagios/admin

/usr/local/etc/nagios/callcentre

Area of Responsibility

/usr/local/etc/nagios/support-team

/usr/local/etc/nagios/network-team

/usr/local/etc/nagios/dev-team

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2. Configuring Layout and Dependencies

define host{
        use                     generic-host            ; Name of host template to use
        host_name               ad1
        alias                   Primary AD Server
        address                 192.168.1.27
        parents                 router1
        check_command           check-host-alive
        max_check_attempts      10                                                   
        notification_interval   120                                                  
        notification_period     24x7                                                 
        notification_options    d,r                                                  
        contact_groups  admins                                                       
        }
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3. Improving Logical Layout

You can use Dummy Hosts to improve the logical layout of your status map. Search the nagios-users mail list archives for "dummy host".

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Chapter 13. Customizing Nagios

Table of Contents

1. Replacing the Default Icons
2. Custom Headers and Footers
3. Editing the Navigation Bar
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1. Replacing the Default Icons

By default, Nagios looks like this:

Here's how you get custom icons working. It's quite easy. In my example, I will be using the standard icons, however there are lots of "icon packs" that others have created. You could also create your own if you wish.

First, check to make sure you have the images on your system.

monitor# ls /usr/local/share/nagios/images/logos/
aix.gd2                 caldera.gif             hp-printer40.png        mac40.png               novell40.gif            slackware.jpg           sunlogo.jpg             unicos.png
aix.gif                 caldera.jpg             hpux.gd2                mandrake.gd2            novell40.jpg            slackware.png           sunlogo.png             unknown.gd2
aix.jpg                 caldera.png             hpux.gif                mandrake.gif            novell40.png            stampede.gd2            switch40.gd2            unknown.gif
aix.png                 cat1900.gd2             hpux.jpg                mandrake.jpg            openbsd.gd2             stampede.gif            switch40.gif            win40.gd2
amiga.gd2               cat2900.gd2             hpux.png                mandrake.png            openbsd.gif             stampede.jpg            switch40.jpg            win40.gif
amiga.gif               cat5000.gd2             irix.gd2                nagios.gd2              openbsd.jpg             stampede.png            switch40.png            win40.jpg
amiga.jpg               debian.gd2              irix.gif                nagios.gif              openbsd.png             station.gd2             turbolinux.gd2          win40.png
amiga.png               debian.gif              irix.jpg                nagiosvrml.png          redhat.gd2              storm.gd2               turbolinux.gif          yellowdog.gd2
apple.gd2               debian.jpg              irix.png                next.gd2                redhat.gif              storm.gif               turbolinux.jpg          yellowdog.gif
apple.gif               debian.png              linux40.gd2             next.gif                redhat.jpg              storm.jpg               turbolinux.png          yellowdog.jpg
apple.jpg               freebsd40.gd2           linux40.gif             next.jpg                redhat.png              storm.png               ultrapenguin.gd2        yellowdog.png
apple.png               freebsd40.gif           linux40.jpg             next.png                router40.gd2            sun40.gd2               ultrapenguin.gif
beos.gd2                freebsd40.jpg           linux40.png             ng-switch40.gd2         router40.gif            sun40.gif               ultrapenguin.jpg
beos.gif                freebsd40.png           logo.gd2                ng-switch40.gif         router40.jpg            sun40.jpg               ultrapenguin.png
beos.jpg                hp-printer40.gd2        mac40.gd2               ng-switch40.jpg         router40.png            sun40.png               unicos.gd2
beos.png                hp-printer40.gif        mac40.gif               ng-switch40.png         slackware.gd2           sunlogo.gd2             unicos.gif
caldera.gd2             hp-printer40.jpg        mac40.jpg               novell40.gd2            slackware.gif           sunlogo.gif             unicos.jpg

Yes, they are there. Next, edit the file hostextinfo.cfg.

ee /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg

This contains the extended host information. You also must make sure that nagios.cfg references hostextinfo.cfg, on my system I had to comment out the following line.

cfg_file=/usr/local/etc/nagios/hostextinfo.cfg

After you've done that, now edit hostextinfo.cfg.

ee /usr/local/etc/nagios/hostextinfo.cfg

I've edited my file like this.

define hostextinfo{
      host_name       localhost,intranet,auth-server,spamd,mailhub,router1,snort1
      notes_url       http://webserver/hostinfo.pl?host=you_can_edit_this
      icon_image      freebsd40.png
      icon_image_alt  FreeBSD
      vrml_image      freebsd40.png
      statusmap_image freebsd40.gd2
#     2d_coords       100,250
#     3d_coords       100.0,50.0,75.0
      }

define hostextinfo{
      host_name       ad1,ad2,ad-test
      notes_url       http://webserver/hostinfo.pl?host=you_can_edit_this
      icon_image      win40.png                                                    
      icon_image_alt  Windows                                            
      vrml_image      win40.png                                                    
      statusmap_image win40.gd2                                                    
#     2d_coords       100,250                                                      
#     3d_coords       100.0,50.0,75.0                                              
      }                                      

Note: You can add your own coordinates for the status map.

After editing the file, save your changes, then restart Nagios.

Check to find the Process ID

monitor# ps -aux | grep nagios

nagios 1978 0.0 0.2 3388 2504 p0 S 6:10PM 0:00.06 /usr/local/bin/nagios /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg

Send the Kill signal

monitor# kill 1978

monitor# Successfully shutdown... (PID=1978)

[1] Done /usr/local/bin/nagios

/usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg

Start Nagios

monitor# /usr/local/bin/nagios /usr/local/etc/nagios/nagios.cfg &

[1] 2062

monitor#

Nagios 2.0b3

Copyright (c) 1999-2005 Ethan Galstad (www.nagios.org)

Last Modified: 04-03-2005

License: GPL

Nagios 2.0b3 starting... (PID=2062)

You should now have custom icons. My example looks like this:

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2. Custom Headers and Footers

cd /usr/local/share/nagios/ssi

ee common-header.ssi

<br>

<strong>

Your Custom Header | Custom Link 1 | Custom Link 2

</strong>

<br>

<hr>

<br>

Save this file.

ee common-footer.ssi

<br>

<strong>

Your Custom Footer | Custom Link 1 | Custom Link 2

</strong>

<br>

Naturally you would replace my sample code with your own HTML.

Nagios will automatically include your newly created files in it's display.

ch13s03.html000644 001753 000000 00000005301 10357122011 013104 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 3. Editing the Navigation Bar << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

3. Editing the Navigation Bar

To edit the navigation, along with changing the look of your Nagios interface, all you have to do is open /usr/local/share/nagios/side.html and make your changes. Simply open the file in your HTML editor of choice, or a text editor if you choose.

The HTML below replaced the Nagios logo in this example. After making some changes to the inline CSS, I achieved the look seen above.

<table width="150" border="0">
  <tr>
    <td>
      <div align="center"><a href="http://www.nagiosbook.org" target="_blank"><img src="images/nagios_book_logo.gif" border="0" alt="NagiosBook.org"></a><br></div>
    </td>
  </tr>
</table>

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Chapter 14. Add-Ons and Related Projects

Table of Contents

1. The A-Z of Nagios Related Projects
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1. The A-Z of Nagios Related Projects

There are literally dozens of add-on projects to enhance and extend Nagios even more. For a very updated list of what is available, I highly recommend visiting NagiosExchange.org.

* Apan

* PerfParse

* Cacti Plugin

* Nagvis

This list is still being compiled.

The number of projects that extend and enhance Nagios is staggering. If you've read the list above and have a need for something not listed, try searching the following sites for Nagios add-ons and enhancements. New projects appear every day.

* NagiosExchange.org

* SourceForge

* Google

ch15.html000644 001753 000000 00000004323 10357122012 012564 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 Chapter 15. Troubleshooting << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

Chapter 15. Troubleshooting

Table of Contents

1. Checking Logs
2. Checking the Nagios Process
3. Permissions
4. Plugins
5. Plugins and Dependencies
ch15s01.html000644 001753 000000 00000005066 10357122013 013116 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 1. Checking Logs << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

1. Checking Logs

OK, so something isn't working, the first thing you do when troubleshooting any problem is to try and isolate the cause. Looking at the error logs is usually helps pinpoint the problem. Useful logs worth checking out:

/var/log/messages                        - General system error log
/var/log/maillog                         - Mail server log
/var/spool/nagios/nagios.log             - The Nagios log

The tail command with appended with the -f switch is also very helpful since you can see what's going on in real-time. I usually have one SSH/Terminal/PuTTY session open just for tailing logs,it's very useful.

# tail -f /var/spool/nagios/nagios.log
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2. Checking the Nagios Process

You can (and should) check the processes are running by running the ps command. It is usually helpful to filter out all of the other system processes and spear in on exactly what we’re looking for.

# ps -aux | grep nagios

ch15s03.html000644 001753 000000 00000003732 10357122013 013116 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 3. Permissions << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

3. Permissions

You can check the file and directory permissions by running the ls –al command, please note this a very common problem seen on the lists. It is imperative that all the permissions be set correctly.

ch15s04.html000644 001753 000000 00000004044 10357122014 013115 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 4. Plugins << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

4. Plugins

First, make sure you can run the check directly. If you can’t run the plugin from the command line (i.e. cd /location/of/your/plugins, then ./whatever_check), then Nagios won’t be able to either. If you can run it, but Nagios can’t, check the ownership and permissions.

ch15s05.html000644 001753 000000 00000004160 10357122015 013116 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 5. Plugins and Dependencies << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

5. Plugins and Dependencies

Many plugins require certain libraries or applications exist on your system. If the dependencies don’t exist, the plugins might not be installed. It’s worth watching the console output carefully when compiling plugins. Always run ./check_yourplugin –h for more information on that particular plugin.

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Chapter 16. More Information

Table of Contents

1. Glossary
2. Index
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1. Glossary

Not compiled yet.

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2. Index

Not compiled yet.

html.css000644 001753 000000 00000000770 10350752024 012623 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 body { background: #FFFFFF; font-size: 10pt; font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } h1, h2, h3, h4, h5 { color: #996600; font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } span.term { font-weight: bold; } div.sidebar { background: #F0F0F0; border: 1px solid gray; padding: 5px; margin: 20px; } pre.programlisting { background: #F0F0F0; border: 1px solid gray; padding: 2px; font-size: 10pt; white-space: pre; } index.html000644 001753 000000 00000017541 10357122037 013150 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 The Nagios Book << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

The Nagios Book

The following material contained in this document cannot be reproduced in any form without prior written permission. Nagios and the Nagios logo are registered trademarks of Ethan Galstad. Other trademarks mentioned within this document are the property of their respective owners.


Table of Contents

Preface
1. Introduction
1. Welcome to the World of Nagios
2. Useful Nagios Resources
3. Other Tutorials
2. What is Nagios?
1. About Nagios
2. Other Monitoring Options
3. Why Use Nagios?
4. Nagios Demo
3. How Nagios Works
1. A Typical Scenario
4. Preparing for Installation
1. Getting Ready
2. Selecting an Operating System
3. Setting Up The Server - FreeBSD
4. Useful FreeBSD Commands
5. Installing Apache
5. Installing Nagios
1. Obtaining Nagios
2. Knowing Where Nagios Lives
3. Telling Apache about Nagios
6. Configuring Nagios
1. Editing Config Files Manually
2. Configuration Front Ends
3. Getting Started
7. Starting Nagios
1. Making Sure Nagios Starts Automatically
2. The Pre-Flight Check
3. The –s Switch
4. Help!
8. Nagios Plugins
1. The Standard Plugins
2. The Contrib Plugins
3. Other Plugins
4. Writing Your Own Plugins
9. Monitoring Remote Unix Servers
1. NPRE
10. Monitoring Remote Windows Servers
1. NSClient
11. Configuring Alerts and Notifications
1. Email Notifications
2. Sendmail
3. SSMTP
4. SMS Alerts
5. Pagers, Popups and Other Messaging
12. Optimizing and Enhancing Nagios
1. Organizing Your Config Files
2. Configuring Layout and Dependencies
3. Improving Logical Layout
13. Customizing Nagios
1. Replacing the Default Icons
2. Custom Headers and Footers
3. Editing the Navigation Bar
14. Add-Ons and Related Projects
1. The A-Z of Nagios Related Projects
15. Troubleshooting
1. Checking Logs
2. Checking the Nagios Process
3. Permissions
4. Plugins
5. Plugins and Dependencies
16. More Information
1. Glossary
2. Index
index.html.1000644 001753 000000 00000017541 10357122037 013307 0ustar00sendwheel000000 000000 The Nagios Book << Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

The Nagios Book

The following material contained in this document cannot be reproduced in any form without prior written permission. Nagios and the Nagios logo are registered trademarks of Ethan Galstad. Other trademarks mentioned within this document are the property of their respective owners.


Table of Contents

Preface
1. Introduction
1. Welcome to the World of Nagios
2. Useful Nagios Resources
3. Other Tutorials
2. What is Nagios?
1. About Nagios
2. Other Monitoring Options
3. Why Use Nagios?
4. Nagios Demo
3. How Nagios Works
1. A Typical Scenario
4. Preparing for Installation
1. Getting Ready
2. Selecting an Operating System
3. Setting Up The Server - FreeBSD
4. Useful FreeBSD Commands
5. Installing Apache
5. Installing Nagios
1. Obtaining Nagios
2. Knowing Where Nagios Lives
3. Telling Apache about Nagios
6. Configuring Nagios
1. Editing Config Files Manually
2. Configuration Front Ends
3. Getting Started
7. Starting Nagios
1. Making Sure Nagios Starts Automatically
2. The Pre-Flight Check
3. The –s Switch
4. Help!
8. Nagios Plugins
1. The Standard Plugins
2. The Contrib Plugins
3. Other Plugins
4. Writing Your Own Plugins
9. Monitoring Remote Unix Servers
1. NPRE
10. Monitoring Remote Windows Servers
1. NSClient
11. Configuring Alerts and Notifications
1. Email Notifications
2. Sendmail
3. SSMTP
4. SMS Alerts
5. Pagers, Popups and Other Messaging
12. Optimizing and Enhancing Nagios
1. Organizing Your Config Files
2. Configuring Layout and Dependencies
3. Improving Logical Layout
13. Customizing Nagios
1. Replacing the Default Icons
2. Custom Headers and Footers
3. Editing the Navigation Bar
14. Add-Ons and Related Projects
1. The A-Z of Nagios Related Projects
15. Troubleshooting
1. Checking Logs
2. Checking the Nagios Process
3. Permissions
4. Plugins
5. Plugins and Dependencies
16. More Information
1. Glossary
2. Index
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Preface

What This Book Will Cover

Warning

This a preview pre-release only. There are several sections missing and a few that need lots of work. This document is only intended for experienced Nagios users for review and feedback.

Stuck? Try Google for that particular keyword or error message. If you still need help, I will try to help if I have time.

You can email me at chris.burgess@nagiosbook.org

Intended Audience

The intended audience is anyone wishing to set up a monitoring solution using Nagios.

Conventions

Commands or text that must be edited will be in bold, the example below shows that you must type ls -al.

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Obtaining the Latest Version

The latest version of this book can be found at:

http://nagiosbook.org

It is currently being edited on an almost daily basis, so make sure you're reviewing the most current copy.

Comments and Corrections

For now, please email: chris.burgess@nagiosbook.org

Acknowledgements

Thanks the helpful folks on the nagios-users mail list and to the following individuals.

Contributors:

  • David Field

Technical Reviewers:

  • Jeffery Fernandez

Suggestions and Corrections: