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Subsections


Volume Utility Tools

This document describes the utility programs written to aid Bacula users and developers in dealing with Volumes external to Bacula.

Specifying the Configuration File

Starting with version 1.27, each of the following programs requires a valid Storage daemon configuration file (actually, the only part of the configuration file that these programs need is the Device resource definitions). This permits the programs to find the configuration parameters for your archive device (generally a tape drive). By default, they read bacula-sd.conf in the current directory, but you may specify a different configuration file using the -c option.

Specifying a Device Name For a Tape

Each of these programs require a device-name where the Volume can be found. In the case of a tape, this is the physical device name such as /dev/nst0 or /dev/rmt/0ubn depending on your system. For the program to work, it must find the identical name in the Device resource of the configuration file. See below for specifying Volume names.

Please note that if you have Bacula running and you ant to use one of these programs, you will either need to stop the Storage daemon, or unmount any tape drive you want to use, otherwise the drive will busy because Bacula is using it.

Specifying a Device Name For a File

If you are attempting to read or write an archive file rather than a tape, the device-name should be the full path to the archive location including the filename. The filename (last part of the specification) will be stripped and used as the Volume name, and the path (first part before the filename) must have the same entry in the configuration file. So, the path is equivalent to the archive device name, and the filename is equivalent to the volume name.

Specifying Volumes

In general, you must specify the Volume name to each of the programs below (with the exception of btape). The best method to do so is to specify a bootstrap file on the command line with the -b option. As part of the bootstrap file, you will then specify the Volume name or Volume names if more than one volume is needed. For example, suppose you want to read tapes tape1 and tape2. First construct a bootstrap file named say, list.bsr which contains:

Volume=test1|test2

where each Volume is separated by a vertical bar. Then simply use:

./bls -b list.bsr /dev/nst0

In the case of Bacula Volumes that are on files, you may simply append volumes as follows:

./bls /tmp/test1\|test2

where the backslash (\) was necessary as a shell escape to permit entering the vertical bar (|).

And finally, if you feel that specifying a Volume name is a bit complicated with a bootstrap file, you can use the -V option (on all programs except bcopy) to specify one or more Volume names separated by the vertical bar (|). For example,

./bls -V Vol001 /dev/nst0

You may also specify an asterisk (*) to indicate that the program should accept any volume. For example:

./bls -V* /dev/nst0


bls

bls can be used to do an ls type listing of a Bacula tape or file. It is called:

Usage: bls [options] <device-name>
       -b <file>       specify a bootstrap file
       -c <file>       specify a config file
       -d <level>      specify debug level
       -e <file>       exclude list
       -i <file>       include list
       -j              list jobs
       -k              list blocks
    (no j or k option) list saved files
       -L              dump label
       -p              proceed inspite of errors
       -v              be verbose
       -V              specify Volume names (separated by |)
       -?              print this message

For example, to list the contents of a tape:

./bls -V Volume-name /dev/nst0

Or to list the contents of a file:

./bls /tmp/Volume-name
or
./bls -V Volume-name /tmp

Note that, in the case of a file, the Volume name becomes the filename, so in the above example, you will replace the xxx with the name of the volume (file) you wrote.

Normally if no options are specified, bls will produce the equivalent output to the ls -l command for each file on the tape. Using other options listed above, it is possible to display only the Job records, only the tape blocks, etc. For example:

 
./bls /tmp/File002
bls: butil.c:148 Using device: /tmp
drwxrwxr-x   3 k  k  4096 02-10-19 21:08  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/
drwxrwxr-x   2 k  k  4096 02-10-10 18:59  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/
-rw-rw-r--   1 k  k    54 02-07-06 18:02  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/Root
-rw-rw-r--   1 k  k    16 02-07-06 18:02  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/Repository
-rw-rw-r--   1 k  k  1783 02-10-10 18:59  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/Entries
-rw-rw-r--   1 k  k 97506 02-10-18 21:07  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/Makefile
-rw-r--r--   1 k  k  3513 02-10-18 21:02  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/Makefile.in
-rw-rw-r--   1 k  k  4669 02-07-06 18:02  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/README-config
-rw-r--r--   1 k  k  4391 02-09-14 16:51  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/authenticate.c
-rw-r--r--   1 k  k  3609 02-07-07 16:41  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/autoprune.c
-rw-rw-r--   1 k  k  4418 02-10-18 21:03  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/bacula-dir.conf
...
-rw-rw-r--   1 k  k    83 02-08-31 19:19  /home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/.cvsignore
bls: Got EOF on device /tmp
84 files found.

Listing Jobs

If you are listing a Volume to determine what Jobs to restore, normally the -j option provides you with most of what you will need as long as you don't have multiple clients. For example,

./bls -j -V Test1 -c stored.conf DDS-4
bls: butil.c:258 Using device: "DDS-4" for reading.
11-Jul 11:54 bls: Ready to read from volume "Test1" on device "DDS-4" (/dev/nst0).
Volume Record: File:blk=0:1 SessId=4 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=0 DataLen=165
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:2 SessId=4 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=1 Level=F Type=B
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:3 SessId=5 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=5 Level=F Type=B
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:6 SessId=3 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=2 Level=F Type=B
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:13 SessId=2 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=4 Level=F Type=B
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:99 SessId=3 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=2 Level=F Type=B
   Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:101 SessId=2 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=4 Level=F Type=B
   Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:108 SessId=5 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=5 Level=F Type=B
   Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:109 SessId=4 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=1 Level=F Type=B
   Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
11-Jul 11:54 bls: End of Volume at file 1 on device "DDS-4" (/dev/nst0), Volume "Test1"
11-Jul 11:54 bls: End of all volumes.

shows a full save followed by two incremental saves.

Adding the -v option will display virtually all information that is available for each record:

Listing Blocks

Normally, except for debugging purposes, you will not need to list Bacula blocks (the "primitive" unit of Bacula data on the Volume). However, you can do so with:

./bls -k /tmp/File002
bls: butil.c:148 Using device: /tmp
Block: 1 size=64512
Block: 2 size=64512
...
Block: 65 size=64512
Block: 66 size=19195
bls: Got EOF on device /tmp
End of File on device

By adding the -v option, you can get more information, which can be useful in knowing what sessions were written to the volume:

./bls -k -v /tmp/File002
Volume Label:
Id                : Bacula 0.9 mortal
VerNo             : 10
VolName           : File002
PrevVolName       :
VolFile           : 0
LabelType         : VOL_LABEL
LabelSize         : 147
PoolName          : Default
MediaType         : File
PoolType          : Backup
HostName          :
Date label written: 2002-10-19 at 21:16
Block: 1 blen=64512 First rec FI=VOL_LABEL SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=0 rlen=147
Block: 2 blen=64512 First rec FI=6 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=4087
Block: 3 blen=64512 First rec FI=12 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=5902
Block: 4 blen=64512 First rec FI=19 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=28382
...
Block: 65 blen=64512 First rec FI=83 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=1873
Block: 66 blen=19195 First rec FI=83 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=2973
bls: Got EOF on device /tmp
End of File on device

Armed with the SessionId and the SessionTime, you can extract just about anything.

If you want to know even more, add a second -v to the command line to get a dump of every record in every block.

./bls -k -v -v /tmp/File002
bls: block.c:79 Dump block  80f8ad0: size=64512 BlkNum=1
               Hdrcksum=b1bdfd6d cksum=b1bdfd6d
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=VOL_LABEL Strm=0 len=147 p=80f8b40
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=SOS_LABEL Strm=-7 len=122 p=80f8be7
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=1 Strm=UATTR len=86 p=80f8c75
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=2 Strm=UATTR len=90 p=80f8cdf
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=3 Strm=UATTR len=92 p=80f8d4d
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=3 Strm=DATA len=54 p=80f8dbd
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=3 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=80f8e07
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=4 Strm=UATTR len=98 p=80f8e2b
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=4 Strm=DATA len=16 p=80f8ea1
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=4 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=80f8ec5
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=5 Strm=UATTR len=96 p=80f8ee9
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=5 Strm=DATA len=1783 p=80f8f5d
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=5 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=80f9668
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=UATTR len=95 p=80f968c
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=DATA len=32768 p=80f96ff
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=DATA len=32768 p=8101713
bls: block.c:79 Dump block  80f8ad0: size=64512 BlkNum=2
               Hdrcksum=9acc1e7f cksum=9acc1e7f
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=contDATA len=4087 p=80f8b40
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=DATA len=31970 p=80f9b4b
bls: block.c:92    Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=8101841
...


bextract

Normally, you will restore files by running a Restore Job from the Console program. However, bextract can be used to extract a single file or a list of files from a Bacula tape or file. In fact, bextract can be a useful tool to restore files to an empty system assuming you are able to boot, you have statically linked bextract and you have an appropriate bootstrap file.

It is called:

 
Usage: bextract [-d debug_level] <device-name> <directory-to-store-files>
       -b <file>       specify a bootstrap file
       -dnn            set debug level to nn
       -e <file>       exclude list
       -i <file>       include list
       -p              proceed inspite of I/O errors
       -V              specify Volume names (separated by |)
       -?              print this message

where device-name is the Archive Device (raw device name or full filename) of the device to be read, and directory-to-store-files is a path prefix to prepend to all the files restored.

NOTE: On Windows systems, if you specify a prefix of say d:/tmp, any file that would have been restored to c:/My Documents will be restored to d:/tmp/My Documents. That is, the original drive specification will be stripped. If no prefix is specified, the file will be restored to the original drive.

Extracting with Include or Exclude Lists

Using the -e option, you can specify a file containing a list of files to be excluded. Wildcards can be used in the exclusion list. This option will normally be used in conjunction with the -i option (see below). Both the -e and the -i options may be specified at the same time as the -b option. The bootstrap filters will be applied first, then the include list, then the exclude list.

Likewise, and probably more importantly, with the -i option, you can specify a file that contains a list (one file per line) of files and directories to include to be restored. The list must contain the full filename with the path. If you specify a path name only, all files and subdirectories of that path will be restored. If you specify a line containing only the filename (e.g. my-file.txt) it probably will not be extracted because you have not specified the full path.

For example, if the file include-list contains:

/home/kern/bacula
/usr/local/bin

Then the command:

./bextract -i include-list -V Volume /dev/nst0 /tmp

will restore from the Bacula archive /dev/nst0 all files and directories in the backup from /home/kern/bacula and from /usr/local/bin. The restored files will be placed in a file of the original name under the directory /tmp (i.e. /tmp/home/kern/bacula/... and /tmp/usr/local/bin/...).

Extracting With a Bootstrap File

The -b option is used to specify a bootstrap file containing the information needed to restore precisely the files you want. Specifying a bootstrap file is optional but recommended because it gives you the most control over which files will be restored. For more details on the bootstrap file, please see Restoring Files with the Bootstrap File chapter of this document. Note, you may also use a bootstrap file produced by the restore command. For example:

./bextract -b bootstrap-file /dev/nst0 /tmp

The bootstrap file allows detailed specification of what files you want restored (extracted). You may specify a bootstrap file and include and/or exclude files at the same time. The bootstrap conditions will first be applied, and then each file record seen will be compared to the include and exclude lists.

Extracting From Multiple Volumes

If you wish to extract files that span several Volumes, you can specify the Volume names in the bootstrap file or you may specify the Volume names on the command line by separating them with a vertical bar. See the section above under the bls program entitled Listing Multiple Volumes for more information. The same techniques apply equally well to the bextract program.


bscan

The bscan program can be used to re-create a database (catalog) from the backup information written to one or more Volumes. This is normally needed only if one or more Volumes have been pruned or purged from your catalog so that the records on the Volume are no longer in the catalog.

With some care, it can also be used to synchronize your existing catalog with a Volume. Although we have never seen a case of bscan damaging a catalog, since bscan modifies your catalog, we recommend that you do a simple ASCII backup of your database before running bscan just to be sure. See Compacting Your Database.

bscan can also be useful in a disaster recovery situation, after the loss of a hard disk, if you do not have a valid bootstrap file for reloading your system, or if a Volume has been recycled but not overwritten, you can use bscan to re-create your database, which can then be used to restore your system or a file to its previous state.

It is called:

 
Usage: bscan [options] <bacula-archive>
       -b bootstrap   specify a bootstrap file
       -c <file>      specify configuration file
       -d <nn>        set debug level to nn
       -m             update media info in database
       -n <name>      specify the database name (default bacula)
       -u <user>      specify database user name (default bacula)
       -P <password>  specify database password (default none)
       -h <host>      specify database host (default NULL)
       -p             proceed inspite of I/O errors
       -r             list records
       -s             synchronize or store in database
       -v             verbose
       -V <Volumes>   specify Volume names (separated by |)
       -w <dir>       specify working directory (default from conf file)
       -?             print this message

If you are using MySQL or PostgreSQL, there is no need to supply a working directory since in that case, bscan knows where the databases are. However, if you have provided security on your database, you may need to supply either the database name (-b option), the user name (-u option), and/or the password (-p) options.

As an example, let's suppose that you did a backup to Volumes "Vol001" and "Vol002", then sometime later all records of one or both those Volumes were pruned or purged from the database. By using bscan you can recreate the catalog entries for those Volumes and then use the restore command in the Console to restore whatever you want. A command something like:

bscan -c bacula-sd.conf -v -V Vol001\|Vol002 /dev/nst0

will give you an idea of what is going to happen without changing your catalog. Of course, you may need to change the path to the Storage daemon's conf file, the Volume name, and your tape (or disk) device name. This command must read the entire tape, so if it has a lot of data, it may take a long time, and thus you might want to immediately use the command listed below. Note, if you are writing to a disk file, replace the device name with the path to the directory that contains the Volumes. This must correspond to the Archive Device in the conf file.

Then to actually write or store the records in the catalog, add the -s option as follows:

 bscan -s -m -c bacula-sd.conf -v -V Vol001\|Vol002 /dev/nst0

When writing to the database, if bscan finds existing records, it will generally either update them if something is wrong or leave them alone. Thus if the Volumes you are scanning are all or partially in the catalog already, no harm will be done to that existing data. Any missing data will simply be added.

If you have multiple tapes, you should scan them with:

 bscan -s -m -c bacula-sd.conf -v -V Vol001\|Vol002\|Vol003 /dev/nst0

You should, always try to specify the tapes in the order they are written. However, bscan can handle scanning tapes that are not sequential. Any incomplete records at the end of the tape will simply be ignored in that case. If you are simply reparing an existing catalog, this may be OK, but if you are creating a new catalog from scratch, it will leave your database in an incorrect state. If you do not specify all necessary Volumes on a single bscan command, bscan will not be able to correctly restore the records that span two volumes. In other words, it is much better to specify two or three volumes on a single bscan command rather than run bscan two or three times, each with a single volume.

Note, the restoration process using bscan is not identical to the original creation of the catalog data. This is because certain non-essential data such as volume reads, volume mounts, etc is not stored on the Volume, and thus is not restored by bscan. The results of bscanning are, however, perfectly valid, and will permit restoration of any or all the files in the catalog using the normal Bacula console commands.

Using bscan to Compare a Volume to an existing Catalog

If you wish to compare the contents of a Volume to an existing catalog without changing the catalog, you can safely do so if and only if you do not specify either the -m or the -s options. However, at this time (Bacula version 1.26), the comparison routines are not as good or as thorough as they should be, so we don't particularly recommend this mode other than for testing.

Using bscan to Recreate a Catalog from a Volume

This is the mode for which bscan is most useful. You can either bscan into a freshly created catalog, or directly into your existing catalog (after having made an ASCII copy as described above). Normally, you should start with a freshly created catalog that contains no data.

Starting with a single Volume named TestVolume1, you run a command such as:

./bscan -V TestVolume1 -v -s -m -c bacula-sd.conf /dev/nst0

If there is more than one volume, simply append it to the first one separating it with a vertical bar. You may need to precede the vertical bar with a forward slash escape the shell -- e.g. TestVolume1\|TestVolume2. The -v option was added for verbose output (this can be omitted if desired). The -s option that tells bscan to store information in the database. The physical device name /dev/nst0 is specified after all the options.

For example, after having done a full backup of a directory, then two incrementals, I reinitialized the SQLite database as described above, and using the bootstrap.bsr file noted above, I entered the following command:

./bscan -b bootstrap.bsr -v -s -c bacula-sd.conf /dev/nst0

which produced the following output:

bscan: bscan.c:182 Using Database: bacula, User: bacula
bscan: bscan.c:673 Created Pool record for Pool: Default
bscan: bscan.c:271 Pool type "Backup" is OK.
bscan: bscan.c:632 Created Media record for Volume: TestVolume1
bscan: bscan.c:298 Media type "DDS-4" is OK.
bscan: bscan.c:307 VOL_LABEL: OK for Volume: TestVolume1
bscan: bscan.c:693 Created Client record for Client: Rufus
bscan: bscan.c:769 Created new JobId=1 record for original JobId=2
bscan: bscan.c:717 Created FileSet record "Kerns Files"
bscan: bscan.c:819 Updated Job termination record for new JobId=1
bscan: bscan.c:905 Created JobMedia record JobId 1, MediaId 1
bscan: Got EOF on device /dev/nst0
bscan: bscan.c:693 Created Client record for Client: Rufus
bscan: bscan.c:769 Created new JobId=2 record for original JobId=3
bscan: bscan.c:708 Fileset "Kerns Files" already exists.
bscan: bscan.c:819 Updated Job termination record for new JobId=2
bscan: bscan.c:905 Created JobMedia record JobId 2, MediaId 1
bscan: Got EOF on device /dev/nst0
bscan: bscan.c:693 Created Client record for Client: Rufus
bscan: bscan.c:769 Created new JobId=3 record for original JobId=4
bscan: bscan.c:708 Fileset "Kerns Files" already exists.
bscan: bscan.c:819 Updated Job termination record for new JobId=3
bscan: bscan.c:905 Created JobMedia record JobId 3, MediaId 1
bscan: Got EOF on device /dev/nst0
bscan: bscan.c:652 Updated Media record at end of Volume: TestVolume1
bscan: bscan.c:428 End of Volume. VolFiles=3 VolBlocks=57 VolBytes=10,027,437

The key points to note are that bscan prints a line when each major record is created. Due to the volume of output, it does not print a line for each file record unless you supply the -v option twice or more on the command line.

In the case of a Job record, the new JobId will not normally be the same as the original Jobid. For example, for the first JobId above, the new JobId is 1, but the original JobId is 2. This is nothing to be concerned about as it is the normal nature of databases. bscan will keep everything straight.

Although bscan claims that it created a Client record for Client: Rufus three times, it was actually only created the first time. This is normal.

You will also notice that it read an end of file after each Job (Got EOF on device ...). Finally the last line gives the total statistics for the bscan.

If you had added a second -v option to the command line, Bacula would have been even more verbose, dumping virtually all the details of each Job record it encountered.

Now if you start Bacula and enter a list jobs command to the console program, you will get:

+-------+----------+------------------+------+-----+----------+----------+---------+
| JobId | Name     | StartTime        | Type | Lvl | JobFiles | JobBytes | JobStat |
+-------+----------+------------------+------+-----+----------+----------+---------+
| 1     | kernsave | 2002-10-07 14:59 | B    | F   | 84       | 4180207  | T       |
| 2     | kernsave | 2002-10-07 15:00 | B    | I   | 15       | 2170314  | T       |
| 3     | kernsave | 2002-10-07 15:01 | B    | I   | 33       | 3662184  | T       |
+-------+----------+------------------+------+-----+----------+----------+---------+

which corresponds virtually identically with what the database contained before it was re-initialized and restored with bscan. All the Jobs and Files found on the tape are restored including most of the Media record. The Volume (Media) records restored will be marked as Full so that they cannot be rewritten without operator intervention.

It should be noted that bscan cannot restore a database to the exact condition it was in previously because a lot of the less important information contained in the database is not saved to the tape. Nevertheless, the reconstruction is sufficiently complete, that you can run restore against it and get valid results.

Using bscan to Correct the Volume File Count

If the Storage daemon crashes during a backup Job, the catalog will not be properly updated for the Volume being used at the time of the crash. This means that the Storage daemon will have written say 20 files on the tape, but the catalog record for the Volume indicates only 19 files.

Bacula refuses to write on a tape that contains a different number of files from what is in the catalog. To correct this situation, you may run a bscan with the -m option (but without the -s option) to update only the final Media record for the Volumes read.

After bscan

If you use bscan to enter the contents of the Volume into an existing catalog, you should be aware that the records you entered may be immediately pruned during the next job, particularly if the Volume is very old or had been previously purged. To avoid this, after running bscan, you can manually set the volume status (VolStatus) to Read-Only by using the update command in the catalog. This will allow you to restore from the volume without having it immediately purged. When you have restored and backed up the data, you can reset the VolStatus to Used and the Volume will be purged from the catalog.


bcopy

The bcopy program can be used to copy one Bacula archive file to another. For example, you may copy a tape to a file, a file to a tape, a file to a file, or a tape to a tape. For tape to tape, you will need two tape drives. (a later version is planned that will buffer it to disk). In the process of making the copy, no record of the information written to the new Volume is stored in the catalog. This means that the new Volume, though it contains valid backup data, cannot be accessed directly from existing catalog entries. If you wish to be able to use the Volume with the Console restore command, for example, you must first bscan the new Volume into the catalog.

bcopy Command Options

Usage: bcopy [-d debug_level] <input-archive> <output-archive>
       -b bootstrap      specify a bootstrap file
       -c <file>         specify configuration file
       -dnn              set debug level to nn
       -i                specify input Volume names (separated by |)
       -o                specify output Volume names (separated by |)
       -p                proceed inspite of I/O errors
       -v                verbose
       -w dir            specify working directory (default /tmp)
       -?                print this message

By using a bootstrap file, you can copy parts of a Bacula archive file to another archive.

One of the objectives of this program is to be able to recover as much data as possible from a damaged tape. However, the current version does not yet have this feature.

As this is a new program, any feedback on its use would be appreciated. In addition, I only have a single tape drive, so I have never been able to test this program with two tape drives.


btape

This program permits a number of elementary tape operations via a tty command interface. The test command, described below, can be very useful for testing older tape drive compatibility problems. Aside from initial testing of tape drive compatibility with Bacula, btape will be mostly used by developers writing new tape drivers.

btape can be dangerous to use with existing Bacula tapes because it will relabel a tape or write on the tape if so requested regardless that the tape may contain valuable data, so please be careful and use it only on blank tapes.

To work properly, btape needs to read the Storage daemon's configuration file. As a default, it will look for bacula-sd.conf in the current directory. If your configuration file is elsewhere, please use the -c option to specify where.

The physical device name must be specified on the command line, and this same device name must be present in the Storage daemon's configuration file read by btape

Usage: btape <options> <device_name>
       -b <file>   specify bootstrap file
       -c <file>   set configuration file to file
       -d <nn>     set debug level to nn
       -p          proceed inspite of I/O errors
       -s          turn off signals
       -v          be verbose
       -?          print this message.

Using btape to Verify your Tape Drive

An important reason for this program is to ensure that a Storage daemon configuration file is defined so that Bacula will correctly read and write tapes.

It is highly recommended that you run the test command before running your first Bacula job to ensure that the parameters you have defined for your storage device (tape drive) will permit Bacula to function properly. You only need to mount a blank tape, enter the command, and the output should be reasonably self explanatory. Please see the Tape Testing Chapter of this manual for the details.

btape Commands

The full list of commands are:

  Command    Description
  =======    ===========
  autochanger test autochanger
  bsf        backspace file
  bsr        backspace record
  bfill      fill tape using Bacula writes
  cap        list device capabilities
  clear      clear tape errors
  eod        go to end of Bacula data for append
  eom        go to the physical end of medium
  fill       fill tape, write onto second volume
  unfill     read filled tape
  fsf        forward space a file
  fsr        forward space a record
  help       print this command
  label      write a Bacula label to the tape
  load       load a tape
  quit       quit btape
  rawfill    use write() to fill tape
  readlabel  read and print the Bacula tape label
  rectest    test record handling functions
  rewind     rewind the tape
  scan       read() tape block by block to EOT and report
  scanblocks Bacula read block by block to EOT and report
  status     print tape status
  test       General test Bacula tape functions
  weof       write an EOF on the tape
  wr         write a single Bacula block
  rr         read a single record
  qfill      quick fill command

The most useful commands are:

The readlabel command can be used to display the details of a Bacula tape label. This can be useful if the physical tape label was lost or damaged.

In the event that you want to relabel a Bacula, you can simply use the label command which will write over any existing label. However, please note for labeling tapes, we recommend that you use the label command in the Console program since it will never overwrite a valid Bacula tape.

Other Programs

The following programs are general utility programs and in general do not need a configuration file nor a device name.


bsmtp

bsmtp is a simple mail transport program that permits more flexibility than the standard mail programs typically found on Unix systems. It can even be used on Windows machines.

It is called:

Usage: bsmtp [-f from] [-h mailhost] [-s subject] [-c copy] [recipient ...]
       -c          set the Cc: field
       -dnn        set debug level to nn
       -f          set the From: field
       -h          use mailhost:port as the bsmtp server
       -s          set the Subject: field
       -?          print this message.

If the -f option is not specified, bsmtp will use your userid. If the option is not specified bsmtp will use the value in the environment variable bsmtpSERVER or if there is none localhost. By default port 25 is used.

recipients is a space separated list of email recipients.

The body of the email message is read from standard input.

An example of the use of bsmtp would be to put the following statement in the Messages resource of your bacula-dir.conf file. Note, these commands should appear on a single line each.

  mailcommand = "/home/bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.domain.com -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\"
                 -s \"Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\" %r"
  operatorcommand = "/home/bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.domain.com -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\"
                    -s \"Bacula: Intervention needed for %j\" %r"

Where you replace /home/bacula/bin with the path to your Bacula binary directory, and you replace mail.domain.com with the fully qualified name of your bsmtp (email) server, which normally listens on port 25. For more details on the substitution characters (e.g. %r) used in the above line, please see the documentation of the MailCommand in the Messages Resource chapter of this manual.

It is HIGHLY recommended that you test one or two cases by hand to make sure that the mailhost that you specified is correct and that it will accept your email requests. Since bsmtp always uses a TCP connection rather than writing in the spool file, you may find that your from address is being rejected because it does not contain a valid domain, or because your message is caught in your spam filtering rules. Generally, you should specify a fully qualified domain name in the from field, and depending on whether your bsmtp gateway is Exim or Sendmail, you may need to modify the syntax of the from part of the message. Please test.

When running bsmtp by hand, you will need to terminate the message by entering a ctl-d in column 1 of the last line.

If you are getting incorrect dates (e.g. 1970) and you are running with a non-English language setting, you might try adding a LANG=''en_US'' immediately before the bsmtp call.


dbcheck

dbcheck is a simple program that will search for logical inconsistencies in the Bacula tables in your database, and optionally fix them. It is a database maintenance routine, in the sense that it can detect and remove unused rows, but it is not a database repair routine. To repair a database, see the tools furnished by the database vendor. Normally dbcheck should never need to be run, but if Bacula has crashed or you have a lot of Clients, Pools, or Jobs that you have removed, it could be useful.

The dbcheck program can be found in the <bacula-source>/src/tools directory of the source distribution. Though it is built with the make process, it is not normally "installed".

It is called:

Usage: dbcheck [-c config] [-C catalog name] [-d debug_level]     []
       -b              batch mode
       -C              catalog name in the director conf file
       -c              director conf filename
       -dnn            set debug level to nn
       -f              fix inconsistencies
       -v              verbose
       -?              print this message

If the -c option is given with the Director's conf file, there is no need to enter any of the command line arguments, in particular the working directory as dbcheck will read them from the file.

If the -f option is specified, dbcheck will repair (fix) the inconsistencies it finds. Otherwise, it will report only.

If the -b option is specified, dbcheck will run in batch mode, and it will proceed to examine and fix (if -f is set) all programmed inconsistency checks. If the -b option is not specified, dbcheck will enter interactive mode and prompt with the following:

Hello, this is the database check/correct program.
Please select the function you want to perform.
     1) Toggle modify database flag
     2) Toggle verbose flag
     3) Repair bad Filename records
     4) Repair bad Path records
     5) Eliminate duplicate Filename records
     6) Eliminate duplicate Path records
     7) Eliminate orphaned Jobmedia records
     8) Eliminate orphaned File records
     9) Eliminate orphaned Path records
    10) Eliminate orphaned Filename records
    11) Eliminate orphaned FileSet records
    12) Eliminate orphaned Client records
    13) Eliminate orphaned Job records
    14) Eliminate all Admin records
    15) Eliminate all Restore records
    16) All (3-15)
    17) Quit
Select function number:

By entering 1 or 2, you can toggle the modify database flag (-f option) and the verbose flag (-v). It can be helpful and reassuring to turn off the modify database flag, then select one or more of the consistency checks (items 3 through 9) to see what will be done, then toggle the modify flag on and re-run the check.

The inconsistencies examined are the following:

By the way, I personally run dbcheck only where I have messed up my database due to a bug in developing Bacula code, so normally you should never need to run dbcheck inspite of the recommendations given above, which are given so that users don't waste their time running dbcheck too often.


bregex

bregex is a simple program that will allow you to test regular expressions against a file of data. This can be useful because the regex libraries on most systems differ, and in addition, regex expressions can be complicated.

bregex is found in the src/tools directory and it is normally installed with your system binaries. To run it, use:

Usage: bregex [-d debug_level] -f <data-file>
       -f          specify file of data to be matched
       -l          suppress line numbers
       -n          print lines that do not match
       -?          print this message.

The <data-file> is a filename that contains lines of data to be matched (or not) against one or more patterns. When the program is run, it will prompt you for a regular expression pattern, then apply it one line at a time against the data in the file. Each line that matches will be printed preceded by its line number. You will then be prompted again for another pattern.

Enter an empty line for a pattern to terminate the program. You can print only lines that do not match by using the -n option, and you can suppress printing of line numbers with the -l option.

This program can be useful for testing regex expressions to be applied against a list of filenames.


bwild

bwild is a simple program that will allow you to test wild-card expressions against a file of data.

bwild is found in the src/tools directory and it is normally installed with your system binaries. To run it, use:

Usage: bwild [-d debug_level] -f <data-file>
       -f          specify file of data to be matched
       -l          suppress line numbers
       -n          print lines that do not match
       -?          print this message.

The <data-file> is a filename that contains lines of data to be matched (or not) against one or more patterns. When the program is run, it will prompt you for a wild-card pattern, then apply it one line at a time against the data in the file. Each line that matches will be printed preceded by its line number. You will then be prompted again for another pattern.

Enter an empty line for a pattern to terminate the program. You can print only lines that do not match by using the -n option, and you can suppress printing of line numbers with the -l option.

This program can be useful for testing wild expressions to be applied against a list of filenames.


testfind

testfind permits listing of files using the same search engine that is used for the Include resource in Job resources. Note, much of the functionality of this program (listing of files to be included) is present in the estimate command in the Console program.

The original use of testfind was to ensure that Bacula's file search engine was correct and to print some statistics on file name and path length. However, you may find it useful to see what bacula would do with a given Include resource. The testfind program can be found in the <bacula-source>/src/tools directory of the source distribution. Though it is built with the make process, it is not normally "installed".

It is called:

Usage: testfind [-d debug_level] [-] [pattern1 ...]
       -a          print extended attributes (Win32 debug)
       -dnn        set debug level to nn
       -           read pattern(s) from stdin
       -?          print this message.
Patterns are used for file inclusion -- normally directories.
Debug level>= 1 prints each file found.
Debug level>= 10 prints path/file for catalog.
Errors are always printed.
Files/paths truncated is a number with len> 255.
Truncation is only in the catalog.

Where a pattern is any filename specification that is valid within an Include resource definition. If none is specified, / (the root directory) is assumed. For example:

./testfind /bin

Would print the following:

Dir: /bin
Reg: /bin/bash
Lnk: /bin/bash2 -> bash
Lnk: /bin/sh -> bash
Reg: /bin/cpio
Reg: /bin/ed
Lnk: /bin/red -> ed
Reg: /bin/chgrp
...
Reg: /bin/ipcalc
Reg: /bin/usleep
Reg: /bin/aumix-minimal
Reg: /bin/mt
Lnka: /bin/gawk-3.1.0 -> /bin/gawk
Reg: /bin/pgawk
Total files    : 85
Max file length: 13
Max path length: 5
Files truncated: 0
Paths truncated: 0

Even though testfind uses the same search engine as Bacula, each directory to be listed, must be entered as a separate command line entry or entered one line at a time to standard input if the - option was specified.

Specifying a debug level of one (i.e. -d1) on the command line will cause testfind to print the raw filenames without showing the Bacula internal file type, or the link (if any). Debug levels of 10 or greater cause the filename and the path to be separated using the same algorithm that is used when putting filenames into the Catalog database.


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Kern Sibbald 2006-07-30