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Configuring the Director

Of all the configuration files needed to run Bacula, the Director's is the most complicated, and the one that you will need to modify the most often as you add clients or modify the FileSets.

For a general discussion of configuration files and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula. Please see the Configuration chapter of this manual.

Director Resource Types

Director resource type may be one of the following:

Job, JobDefs, Client, Storage, Catalog, Schedule, FileSet, Pool, Director, or Messages. We present them here in the most logical order for defining them:


The Director Resource

The Director resource defines the attributes of the Directors running on the network. In the current implementation, there is only a single Director resource, but the final design will contain multiple Directors to maintain index and media database redundancy.

Director
Start of the Director resource. One and only one director resource must be supplied.

Name = <name>
The director name used by the system administrator. This directive is required.

Description = <text>
The text field contains a description of the Director that will be displayed in the graphical user interface. This directive is optional.

Password = <UA-password>
Specifies the password that must be supplied for the default Bacula Console to be authorized. The same password must appear in the Director resource of the Console configuration file. For added security, the password is never actually passed across the network but rather a challenge response hash code created with the password. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random or bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process, otherwise it will be left blank and you must manually supply it.

Messages = <Messages-resource-name>
The messages resource specifies where to deliver Director messages that are not associated with a specific Job. Most messages are specific to a job and will be directed to the Messages resource specified by the job. However, there are a few messages that can occur when no job is running. This directive is required.

Working Directory = <Directory>
This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director may put its status files. This directory should be used only by Bacula but may be shared by other Bacula daemons. However, please note, if this directory is shared with other Bacula daemons (the File daemon and Storage daemon), you must ensure that the Name given to each daemon is unique so that the temporary filenames used do not collide. By default the Bacula configure process creates unique daemon names by postfixing them with -dir, -fd, and -sd. Standard shell expansion of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded. This directive is required.

If you have specified a Director user and/or a Director group on your ./configure line with --with-dir-user and/or --with-dir-group the Working Directory owner and group will be set to those values.

Pid Directory = <Directory>
This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director may put its process Id file. The process Id file is used to shutdown Bacula and to prevent multiple copies of Bacula from running simultaneously. Standard shell expansion of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded.

Typically on Linux systems, you will set this to: /var/run. If you are not installing Bacula in the system directories, you can use the Working Directory as defined above. This directive is required.

Scripts Directory = <Directory>
This directive is optional and, if defined, specifies a directory in which the Director will look for the Python startup script DirStartup.py. This directory may be shared by other Bacula daemons. Standard shell expansion of the directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded.

QueryFile = <Path>
This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory and file in which the Director can find the canned SQL statements for the Query command of the Console. Standard shell expansion of the Path is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded. This directive is required.

Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number>
where <number> is the maximum number of total Director Jobs that should run concurrently. The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number.

Please note that the Volume format becomes much more complicated with multiple simultaneous jobs, consequently, restores can take much longer if Bacula must sort through interleaved volume blocks from multiple simultaneous jobs. This can be avoided by having each simultaneously running job write to a different volume or by using data spooling, which will first spool the data to disk simultaneously, then write each spool file to the volume in sequence.

There may also still be some cases where directives such as Maximum Volume Jobs are not properly synchronized with multiple simultaneous jobs (subtle timing issues can arise), so careful testing is recommended.

At the current time, there is no configuration parameter set to limit the number of console connections. A maximum of five simultaneous console connections are permitted.

For more details on getting concurrent jobs to run, please see Running Concurrent Jobs in the Tips chapter of this manual.

FD Connect Timeout = <time>
where time is the time that the Director should continue attempting to contact the File daemon to start a job, and after which the Director will cancel the job. The default is 30 minutes.

SD Connect Timeout = <time>
where time is the time that the Director should continue attempting to contact the Storage daemon to start a job, and after which the Director will cancel the job. The default is 30 minutes.

DirAddresses = <IP-address-specification>
Specify the ports and addresses on which the Director daemon will listen for Bacula Console connections. Probably the simplest way to explain this is to show an example:

 DirAddresses  = { ip = {
        addr = 1.2.3.4; port = 1205;}
    ipv4 = {
        addr = 1.2.3.4; port = http;}
    ipv6 = {
        addr = 1.2.3.4;
        port = 1205;
  }
    ip = {
        addr = 1.2.3.4
        port = 1205
  }
    ip = {
        addr = 1.2.3.4
  }
    ip = {
        addr = 201:220:222::2
  }
    ip = {
        addr = bluedot.thun.net
  }
}

where ip, ip4, ip6, addr, and port are all keywords. Note, that the address can be specified as either a dotted quadruple, or IPv6 colon notation, or as a symbolic name (only in the ip specification). Also, port can be specified as a number or as the mnemonic value from the /etc/services file. If a port is not specified, the default will be used. If an ip section is specified, the resolution can be made either by IPv4 or IPv6. If ip4 is specified, then only IPv4 resolutions will be permitted, and likewise with ip6.

Please note that if you use the DirAddresses directive, you must not use either a DirPort or a DirAddress directive in the same resource.

DIRport = <port-number>
Specify the port (a positive integer) on which the Director daemon will listen for Bacula Console connections. This same port number must be specified in the Director resource of the Console configuration file. The default is 9101, so normally this directive need not be specified. This directive is not needed if you specify DirAddresses.

DirAddress = <IP-Address>
This directive is optional, but if it is specified, it will cause the Director server (for the Console program) to bind to the specified IP-Address, which is either a domain name or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple in string or quoted string format. If this directive is not specified, the Director will bind to any available address (the default). Note, unlike the DirAddresses specification noted above, this directive only permits a single address to be specified. This directive is not needed if you specify a DirAddresses (not plural).

The following is an example of a valid Director resource definition:

Director {
  Name = HeadMan
  WorkingDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working"
  Password = UA_password
  PidDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working"
  QueryFile = "$HOME/bacula/bin/query.sql"
  Messages = Standard
}


The Job Resource

The Job resource defines a Job (Backup, Restore, ...) that Bacula must perform. Each Job resource definition contains the name of a Client and a FileSet to backup, the Schedule for the Job, where the data are to be stored, and what media Pool can be used. In effect, each Job resource must specify What, Where, How, and When or FileSet, Storage, Backup/Restore/Level, and Schedule respectively. Note, the FileSet must be specified for a restore job for historical reasons, but it is no longer used.

Only a single type (Backup, Restore, ...) can be specified for any job. If you want to backup multiple FileSets on the same Client or multiple Clients, you must define a Job for each one.

Job
Start of the Job resource. At least one Job resource is required.

Name = <name>
The Job name. This name can be specified on the Run command in the console program to start a job. If the name contains spaces, it must be specified between quotes. It is generally a good idea to give your job the same name as the Client that it will backup. This permits easy identification of jobs.

When the job actually runs, the unique Job Name will consist of the name you specify here followed by the date and time the job was scheduled for execution. This directive is required.

Enabled = <yes|no>
This directive allows you to enable or disable automatic execution via the scheduler of a Job.

Type = <job-type>
The Type directive specifies the Job type, which may be one of the following: Backup, Restore, Verify, or Admin. This directive is required. Within a particular Job Type, there are also Levels as discussed in the next item.

Backup
Run a backup Job. Normally you will have at least one Backup job for each client you want to save. Normally, unless you turn off cataloging, most all the important statistics and data concerning files backed up will be placed in the catalog.

Restore
Run a restore Job. Normally, you will specify only one Restore job which acts as a sort of prototype that you will modify using the console program in order to perform restores. Although certain basic information from a Restore job is saved in the catalog, it is very minimal compared to the information stored for a Backup job -- for example, no File database entries are generated since no Files are saved.

Verify
Run a verify Job. In general, verify jobs permit you to compare the contents of the catalog to the file system, or to what was backed up. In addition, to verifying that a tape that was written can be read, you can also use verify as a sort of tripwire intrusion detection.

Admin
Run an admin Job. An Admin job can be used to periodically run catalog pruning, if you do not want to do it at the end of each Backup Job. Although an Admin job is recorded in the catalog, very little data is saved.

Level = <job-level>
The Level directive specifies the default Job level to be run. Each different Job Type (Backup, Restore, ...) has a different set of Levels that can be specified. The Level is normally overridden by a different value that is specified in the Schedule resource. This directive is not required, but must be specified either by a Level directive or as an override specified in the Schedule resource.

For a Backup Job, the Level may be one of the following:

Full
When the Level is set to Full all files in the FileSet whether or not they have changed will be backed up.

Incremental
When the Level is set to Incremental all files specified in the FileSet that have changed since the last successful backup of the the same Job using the same FileSet and Client, will be backed up. If the Director cannot find a previous valid Full backup then the job will be upgraded into a Full backup. When the Director looks for a valid backup record in the catalog database, it looks for a previous Job with:

  • The same Job name.
  • The same Client name.
  • The same FileSet (any change to the definition of the FileSet such as adding or deleting a file in the Include or Exclude sections constitutes a different FileSet.
  • The Job was a Full, Differential, or Incremental backup.
  • The Job terminated normally (i.e. did not fail or was not canceled).

If all the above conditions do not hold, the Director will upgrade the Incremental to a Full save. Otherwise, the Incremental backup will be performed as requested.

The File daemon (Client) decides which files to backup for an Incremental backup by comparing start time of the prior Job (Full, Differential, or Incremental) against the time each file was last "modified" (st_mtime) and the time its attributes were last "changed"(st_ctime). If the file was modified or its attributes changed on or after this start time, it will then be backed up.

Some virus scanning software may change st_ctime while doing the scan. For example, if the virus scanning program attempts to reset the access time (st_atime), which Bacula does not use, it will cause st_ctime to change and hence Bacula will backup the file during an Incremental or Differential backup. In the case of Sophos virus scanning, you can prevent it from resetting the access time (st_atime) and hence changing st_ctime by using the --no-reset-atime option. For other software, please see their manual.

When Bacula does an Incremental backup, all modified files that are still on the system are backed up. However, any file that has been deleted since the last Full backup remains in the Bacula catalog, which means that if between a Full save and the time you do a restore, some files are deleted, those deleted files will also be restored. The deleted files will no longer appear in the catalog after doing another Full save. However, to remove deleted files from the catalog during an Incremental backup is quite a time consuming process and not currently implemented in Bacula.

In addition, if you move a directory rather than copy it, the files in it do not have their modification time (st_mtime) or their attribute change time (st_ctime) changed. As a consequence, those files will probably not be backed up by an Incremental or Differential backup which depend solely on these time stamps. If you move a directory, and wish it to be properly backed up, it is generally preferable to copy it, then delete the original.

Differential
When the Level is set to Differential all files specified in the FileSet that have changed since the last successful Full backup of the same Job will be backed up. If the Director cannot find a valid previous Full backup for the same Job, FileSet, and Client, backup, then the Differential job will be upgraded into a Full backup. When the Director looks for a valid Full backup record in the catalog database, it looks for a previous Job with:

  • The same Job name.
  • The same Client name.
  • The same FileSet (any change to the definition of the FileSet such as adding or deleting a file in the Include or Exclude sections constitutes a different FileSet.
  • The Job was a FULL backup.
  • The Job terminated normally (i.e. did not fail or was not canceled).

If all the above conditions do not hold, the Director will upgrade the Differential to a Full save. Otherwise, the Differential backup will be performed as requested.

The File daemon (Client) decides which files to backup for a differential backup by comparing the start time of the prior Full backup Job against the time each file was last "modified" (st_mtime) and the time its attributes were last "changed" (st_ctime). If the file was modified or its attributes were changed on or after this start time, it will then be backed up. The start time used is displayed after the Since on the Job report. In rare cases, using the start time of the prior backup may cause some files to be backed up twice, but it ensures that no change is missed. As with the Incremental option, you should ensure that the clocks on your server and client are synchronized or as close as possible to avoid the possibility of a file being skipped. Note, on versions 1.33 or greater Bacula automatically makes the necessary adjustments to the time between the server and the client so that the times Bacula uses are synchronized.

When Bacula does a Differential backup, all modified files that are still on the system are backed up. However, any file that has been deleted since the last Full backup remains in the Bacula catalog, which means that if between a Full save and the time you do a restore, some files are deleted, those deleted files will also be restored. The deleted files will no longer appear in the catalog after doing another Full save. However, to remove deleted files from the catalog during a Differential backup is quite a time consuming process and not currently implemented in Bacula. It is, however, a planned future feature.

As noted above, if you move a directory rather than copy it, the files in it do not have their modification time (st_mtime) or their attribute change time (st_ctime) changed. As a consequence, those files will probably not be backed up by an Incremental or Differential backup which depend solely on these time stamps. If you move a directory, and wish it to be properly backed up, it is generally preferable to copy it, then delete the original. Alternatively, you can move the directory, then use the touch program to update the timestamps.

Every once and a while, someone asks why we need Differential backups as long as Incremental backups pickup all changed files. There are possibly many answers to this question, but the one that is the most important for me is that a Differential backup effectively merges all the Incremental and Differential backups since the last Full backup into a single Differential backup. This has two effects: 1. It gives some redundancy since the old backups could be used if the merged backup cannot be read. 2. More importantly, it reduces the number of Volumes that are needed to do a restore effectively eliminating the need to read all the volumes on which the preceding Incremental and Differential backups since the last Full are done.

For a Restore Job, no level needs to be specified.

For a Verify Job, the Level may be one of the following:

InitCatalog
does a scan of the specified FileSet and stores the file attributes in the Catalog database. Since no file data is saved, you might ask why you would want to do this. It turns out to be a very simple and easy way to have a Tripwire like feature using Bacula. In other words, it allows you to save the state of a set of files defined by the FileSet and later check to see if those files have been modified or deleted and if any new files have been added. This can be used to detect system intrusion. Typically you would specify a FileSet that contains the set of system files that should not change (e.g. /sbin, /boot, /lib, /bin, ...). Normally, you run the InitCatalog level verify one time when your system is first setup, and then once again after each modification (upgrade) to your system. Thereafter, when your want to check the state of your system files, you use a Verify level = Catalog. This compares the results of your InitCatalog with the current state of the files.

Catalog
Compares the current state of the files against the state previously saved during an InitCatalog. Any discrepancies are reported. The items reported are determined by the verify options specified on the Include directive in the specified FileSet (see the FileSet resource below for more details). Typically this command will be run once a day (or night) to check for any changes to your system files.

Please note! If you run two Verify Catalog jobs on the same client at the same time, the results will certainly be incorrect. This is because Verify Catalog modifies the Catalog database while running in order to track new files.

VolumeToCatalog
This level causes Bacula to read the file attribute data written to the Volume from the last Job. The file attribute data are compared to the values saved in the Catalog database and any differences are reported. This is similar to the Catalog level except that instead of comparing the disk file attributes to the catalog database, the attribute data written to the Volume is read and compared to the catalog database. Although the attribute data including the signatures (MD5 or SHA1) are compared, the actual file data is not compared (it is not in the catalog).

Please note! If you run two Verify VolumeToCatalog jobs on the same client at the same time, the results will certainly be incorrect. This is because the Verify VolumeToCatalog modifies the Catalog database while running.

DiskToCatalog
This level causes Bacula to read the files as they currently are on disk, and to compare the current file attributes with the attributes saved in the catalog from the last backup for the job specified on the VerifyJob directive. This level differs from the Catalog level described above by the fact that it doesn't compare against a previous Verify job but against a previous backup. When you run this level, you must supply the verify options on your Include statements. Those options determine what attribute fields are compared.

This command can be very useful if you have disk problems because it will compare the current state of your disk against the last successful backup, which may be several jobs.

Note, the current implementation (1.32c) does not identify files that have been deleted.

Verify Job = <Job-Resource-Name>
If you run a verify job without this directive, the last job run will be compared with the catalog, which means that you must immediately follow a backup by a verify command. If you specify a Verify Job Bacula will find the last job with that name that ran. This permits you to run all your backups, then run Verify jobs on those that you wish to be verified (most often a VolumeToCatalog) so that the tape just written is re-read.

JobDefs = <JobDefs-Resource-Name>
If a JobDefs-Resource-Name is specified, all the values contained in the named JobDefs resource will be used as the defaults for the current Job. Any value that you explicitly define in the current Job resource, will override any defaults specified in the JobDefs resource. The use of this directive permits writing much more compact Job resources where the bulk of the directives are defined in one or more JobDefs. This is particularly useful if you have many similar Jobs but with minor variations such as different Clients. A simple example of the use of JobDefs is provided in the default bacula-dir.conf file.

Bootstrap = <bootstrap-file>
The Bootstrap directive specifies a bootstrap file that, if provided, will be used during Restore Jobs and is ignored in other Job types. The bootstrap file contains the list of tapes to be used in a restore Job as well as which files are to be restored. Specification of this directive is optional, and if specified, it is used only for a restore job. In addition, when running a Restore job from the console, this value can be changed.

If you use the Restore command in the Console program, to start a restore job, the bootstrap file will be created automatically from the files you select to be restored.

For additional details of the bootstrap file, please see Restoring Files with the Bootstrap File chapter of this manual.

Write Bootstrap = <bootstrap-file-specification>
The writebootstrap directive specifies a file name where Bacula will write a bootstrap file for each Backup job run. Thus this directive applies only to Backup Jobs. If the Backup job is a Full save, Bacula will erase any current contents of the specified file before writing the bootstrap records. If the Job is an Incremental save, Bacula will append the current bootstrap record to the end of the file.

Using this feature, permits you to constantly have a bootstrap file that can recover the current state of your system. Normally, the file specified should be a mounted drive on another machine, so that if your hard disk is lost, you will immediately have a bootstrap record available. Alternatively, you should copy the bootstrap file to another machine after it is updated.

If the bootstrap-file-specification begins with a vertical bar (|), Bacula will use the specification as the name of a program to which it will pipe the bootstrap record. It could for example be a shell script that emails you the bootstrap record.

For more details on using this file, please see the chapter entitled The Bootstrap File of this manual.

Client = <client-resource-name>
The Client directive specifies the Client (File daemon) that will be used in the current Job. Only a single Client may be specified in any one Job. The Client runs on the machine to be backed up, and sends the requested files to the Storage daemon for backup, or receives them when restoring. For additional details, see the Client Resource section of this chapter. This directive is required.

FileSet = <FileSet-resource-name>
The FileSet directive specifies the FileSet that will be used in the current Job. The FileSet specifies which directories (or files) are to be backed up, and what options to use (e.g. compression, ...). Only a single FileSet resource may be specified in any one Job. For additional details, see the FileSet Resource section of this chapter. This directive is required.

Messages = <messages-resource-name>
The Messages directive defines what Messages resource should be used for this job, and thus how and where the various messages are to be delivered. For example, you can direct some messages to a log file, and others can be sent by email. For additional details, see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual. This directive is required.

Pool = <pool-resource-name>
The Pool directive defines the pool of Volumes where your data can be backed up. Many Bacula installations will use only the Default pool. However, if you want to specify a different set of Volumes for different Clients or different Jobs, you will probably want to use Pools. For additional details, see the Pool Resource section of this chapter. This directive is required.

Full Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name>
The Full Backup Pool specifies a Pool to be used for Full backups. It will override any Pool specification during a Full backup. This directive is optional.

Differential Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name>
The Differential Backup Pool specifies a Pool to be used for Differential backups. It will override any Pool specification during a Differential backup. This directive is optional.

Incremental Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name>
The Incremental Backup Pool specifies a Pool to be used for Incremental backups. It will override any Pool specification during an Incremental backup. This directive is optional.

Schedule = <schedule-name>
The Schedule directive defines what schedule is to be used for the Job. The schedule in turn determines when the Job will be automatically started and what Job level (i.e. Full, Incremental, ...) is to be run. This directive is optional, and if left out, the Job can only be started manually using the Console program. Although you may specify only a single Schedule resource for any one job, the Schedule resource may contain multiple Run directives, which allow you to run the Job at many different times, and each run directive permits overriding the default Job Level Pool, Storage, and Messages resources. This gives considerable flexibility in what can be done with a single Job. For additional details, see the Schedule Resource Chapter of this manual.

Storage = <storage-resource-name>
The Storage directive defines the name of the storage services where you want to backup the FileSet data. For additional details, see the Storage Resource Chapter of this manual. This directive is required.

Max Start Delay = <time>
The time specifies the maximum delay between the scheduled time and the actual start time for the Job. For example, a job can be scheduled to run at 1:00am, but because other jobs are running, it may wait to run. If the delay is set to 3600 (one hour) and the job has not begun to run by 2:00am, the job will be canceled. This can be useful, for example, to prevent jobs from running during day time hours. The default is 0 which indicates no limit.

Max Run Time = <time>
The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may run, counted from when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). This directive is implemented in version 1.33 and later.

Max Wait Time = <time>
The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may block waiting for a resource (such as waiting for a tape to be mounted, or waiting for the storage or file daemons to perform their duties), counted from the when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). This directive is implemented only in version 1.33 and later.

Incremental Max Wait Time = <time>
The time specifies the maximum allowed time that an Incremental backup job may block waiting for a resource (such as waiting for a tape to be mounted, or waiting for the storage or file daemons to perform their duties), counted from the when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). Please note that if there is a Max Wait Time it may also be applied to the job.

Differential Max Wait Time = <time>
The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a Differential backup job may block waiting for a resource (such as waiting for a tape to be mounted, or waiting for the storage or file daemons to perform their duties), counted from the when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). Please note that if there is a Max Wait Time it may also be applied to the job.

Prefer Mounted Volumes = <yes|no>
If the Prefer Mounted Volumes directive is set to yes (default yes), the Storage daemon is requested to select either an Autochanger or a drive with a valid Volume already mounted in preference to a drive that is not ready. If no drive with a suitable Volume is available, it will select the first available drive.

If the directive is set to no, the Storage daemon will prefer finding an unused drive, otherwise, each job started will append to the same Volume (assuming the Pool is the same for all jobs). Setting Prefer Mounted Volumes to no can be useful for those sites particularly with multiple drive autochangers that prefer to maximumize backup throughput at the expense of using additional drives and Volumes. As an optimization, when using multiple drives, you will probably want to start each of your jobs one after another with approximately 5 second intervals. This will help ensure that each night, the same drive (Volume) is selected for the same job, otherwise, when you do a restore, you may find the files spread over many more Volumes than necessary.

Prune Jobs = <yes|no>
Normally, pruning of Jobs from the Catalog is specified on a Client by Client basis in the Client resource with the AutoPrune directive. If this directive is specified (not normally) and the value is yes, it will override the value specified in the Client resource. The default is no.

Prune Files = <yes|no>
Normally, pruning of Files from the Catalog is specified on a Client by Client basis in the Client resource with the AutoPrune directive. If this directive is specified (not normally) and the value is yes, it will override the value specified in the Client resource. The default is no.

Prune Volumes = <yes|no>
Normally, pruning of Volumes from the Catalog is specified on a Client by Client basis in the Client resource with the AutoPrune directive. If this directive is specified (not normally) and the value is yes, it will override the value specified in the Client resource. The default is no.

RunScript {...}

The specified command is run as an external program prior or after the current Job. This directive is optional.

You can use following options :
Options Value Default Informations
Runs On Success Yes/No Yes Run command if JobStatus is successful
Runs On Failure Yes/No No Run command if JobStatus isn't successful
Runs On Client Yes/No Yes Run command on client
Runs When Before|After|Always Never When run commands
Abort Job On Error Yes/No Yes Abort job if script return something different from 0
Command     Path to your script

Any output sent by the command to standard output will be included in the Bacula job report. The command string must be a valid program name or name of a shell script.

In addition, the command string is parsed then fed to the execvp() function, which means that the path will be searched to execute your specified command, but there is no shell interpretation, as a consequence, if you invoke complicated commands or want any shell features such as redirection or piping, you must call a shell script and do it inside that script.

Before submitting the specified command to the operating system, Bacula performs character substitution of the following characters:

    %% = %
    %c = Client's name
    %d = Director's name
    %e = Job Exit Status
    %i = JobId
    %j = Unique Job id
    %l = Job Level
    %n = Job name
    %s = Since time
    %t = Job type (Backup, ...)
    %v = Volume name
    

The Job Exit Status code %e edits the following values:

Thus if you edit it on a command line, you will need to enclose it within some sort of quotes.

You can use these following shortcuts :
Keyword RunsOnSuccess RunsOnFailure AbortJobOnError Runs On Client RunsWhen
Run Before Job     Yes No Before
Run After Job Yes No   No After
Run After Failed Job No Yes   No After
Client Run Before Job     Yes Yes Before
Client Run After Job Yes No   Yes After
Client Run After Failed Job No Yes   Yes After

Example :

RunScript {
    RunsWhen = Before
    AbortJobOnError = No
    Command = "/etc/init.d/apache stop"
}

RunScript {
    RunsWhen = After
    RunsOnFailure = yes
    Command = "/etc/init.d/apache start"
}

Special Windows Considerations

In addition, for a Windows client on version 1.33 and above, please take careful note that you must ensure a correct path to your script. The script or program can be a .com, .exe or a .bat file. However, if you specify a path, you must also specify the full extension. Unix like commands will not work unless you have installed and properly configured Cygwin in addition to and separately from Bacula.

The command can be anything that cmd.exe or command.com will recognize as an executable file. Specifying the executable's extension is optional, unless there is an ambiguity. (i.e. ls.bat, ls.exe)

The System %Path% will be searched for the command. (under the environment variable dialog you have have both System Environment and User Environment, we believe that only the System environment will be available to bacula-fd, if it is running as a service.)

System environment variables can be referenced with %var% and used as either part of the command name or arguments.

ClientRunBeforeJob = "\"C:/Program Files/Software
     Vendor/Executable\" /arg1 /arg2 \"foo bar\""

The special characters &()[]{}^=;!'+,`~ will need to be quoted if they are part of a filename or argument.

If someone is logged in, a blank "command" window running the commands will be present during the execution of the command.

Some Suggestions from Phil Stracchino for running on Win32 machines with the native Win32 File daemon:

  1. You might want the ClientRunBeforeJob directive to specify a .bat file which runs the actual client-side commands, rather than trying to run (for example) regedit /e directly.
  2. The batch file should explicitly 'exit 0' on successful completion.
  3. The path to the batch file should be specified in Unix form:

    ClientRunBeforeJob = "c:/bacula/bin/systemstate.bat"

    rather than DOS/Windows form:

    ClientRunBeforeJob =

    "c:\bacula\bin\systemstate.bat" INCORRECT

The following example of the use of the Client Run Before Job directive was submitted by a user:
You could write a shell script to back up a DB2 database to a FIFO. The shell script is:

 #!/bin/sh
 # ===== backupdb.sh
 DIR=/u01/mercuryd
 
 mkfifo $DIR/dbpipe
 db2 BACKUP DATABASE mercuryd TO $DIR/dbpipe WITHOUT PROMPTING &
 sleep 1

The following line in the Job resource in the bacula-dir.conf file:

 Client Run Before Job = "su - mercuryd -c \"/u01/mercuryd/backupdb.sh '%t'
'%l'\""

When the job is run, you will get messages from the output of the script stating that the backup has started. Even though the command being run is backgrounded with &, the job will block until the "db2 BACKUP DATABASE" command, thus the backup stalls.

To remedy this situation, the "db2 BACKUP DATABASE" line should be changed to the following:

 
 db2 BACKUP DATABASE mercuryd TO $DIR/dbpipe WITHOUT PROMPTING > $DIR/backup.log
2>&1 < /dev/null &

It is important to redirect the input and outputs of a backgrounded command to /dev/null to prevent the script from blocking.

Run Before Job = <command>
The specified command is run as an external program prior to running the current Job. This directive is not required, but if it is defined, and if the exit code of the program run is non-zero, the current Bacula job will be canceled.

Run Before Job = "echo test"
it's equivalent to :
RunScript {
 Command = "echo test"
 RunsOnClient = No
 RunsWhen = Before
}

Lutz Kittler has pointed out that using the RunBeforJob directive can be a simple way to modify your schedules during a holiday. For example, suppose that you normally do Full backups on Fridays, but Thursday and Friday are holidays. To avoid having to change tapes between Thursday and Friday when no one is in the office, you can create a RunBeforeJob that returns a non-zero status on Thursday and zero on all other days. That way, the Thursday job will not run, and on Friday the tape you inserted on Wednesday before leaving will be used.

Run After Job = <command>
The specified command is run as an external program if the current job terminates normally (without error or without being canceled). This directive is not required. If the exit code of the program run is non-zero, Bacula will print a warning message. Before submitting the specified command to the operating system, Bacula performs character substitution as described above for the RunScript directive.

An example of the use of this directive is given in the Tips Chapter of this manual.

See the Run After Failed Job if you want to run a script after the job has terminated with any non-normal status.

Run After Failed Job = <command>
The specified command is run as an external program after the current job terminates with any error status. This directive is not required. The command string must be a valid program name or name of a shell script. If the exit code of the program run is non-zero, Bacula will print a warning message. Before submitting the specified command to the operating system, Bacula performs character substitution as described above for the RunScript directive. Note, if you wish that your script will run regardless of the exit status of the Job, you can use this :
RunScript {
 Command = "echo test"
 RunsWhen = After
 RunsOnFailure = yes
 RunsOnClient  = no
 RunsOnSuccess = yes    # default, you can drop this line
}

An example of the use of this directive is given in the Tips Chapter of this manual.

Client Run Before Job = <command>
This directive is the same as Run Before Job except that the program is run on the client machine. The same restrictions apply to Unix systems as noted above for the RunScript.

Client Run After Job = <command>
This directive is the same as Run After Job except that it is run on the client machine. Note, please see the notes above in RunScript concerning Windows clients.

Rerun Failed Levels = <yes|no>
If this directive is set to yes (default no), and Bacula detects that a previous job at a higher level (i.e. Full or Differential) has failed, the current job level will be upgraded to the higher level. This is particularly useful for Laptops where they may often be unreachable, and if a prior Full save has failed, you wish the very next backup to be a Full save rather than whatever level it is started as.

Spool Data = <yes|no>
If this directive is set to yes (default no), the Storage daemon will be requested to spool the data for this Job to disk rather than write it directly to tape. Once all the data arrives or the spool files' maximum sizes are reached, the data will be despooled and written to tape. When this directive is set to yes, the Spool Attributes is also automatically set to yes. Spooling data prevents tape shoe-shine (start and stop) during Incremental saves. This option should not be used if you are writing to a disk file.

Spool Attributes = <yes|no>
The default is set to no, which means that the File attributes are sent by the Storage daemon to the Director as they are stored on tape. However, if you want to avoid the possibility that database updates will slow down writing to the tape, you may want to set the value to yes, in which case the Storage daemon will buffer the File attributes and Storage coordinates to a temporary file in the Working Directory, then when writing the Job data to the tape is completed, the attributes and storage coordinates will be sent to the Director.

Where = <directory>
This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a prefix to the directory name of all files being restored. This permits files to be restored in a different location from which they were saved. If Where is not specified or is set to backslash (/), the files will be restored to their original location. By default, we have set Where in the example configuration files to be /tmp/bacula-restores. This is to prevent accidental overwriting of your files.

Replace = <replace-option>
This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies what happens when Bacula wants to restore a file or directory that already exists. You have the following options for replace-option:

always
when the file to be restored already exists, it is deleted and then replaced by the copy that was backed up.

ifnewer
if the backed up file (on tape) is newer than the existing file, the existing file is deleted and replaced by the back up.

ifolder
if the backed up file (on tape) is older than the existing file, the existing file is deleted and replaced by the back up.

never
if the backed up file already exists, Bacula skips restoring this file.

Prefix Links=<yes|no>
If a Where path prefix is specified for a recovery job, apply it to absolute links as well. The default is No. When set to Yes then while restoring files to an alternate directory, any absolute soft links will also be modified to point to the new alternate directory. Normally this is what is desired -- i.e. everything is self consistent. However, if you wish to later move the files to their original locations, all files linked with absolute names will be broken.

Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number>
where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs from the current Job resource that can run concurrently. Note, this directive limits only Jobs with the same name as the resource in which it appears. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs such as in the Director, Client, or Storage resources will also apply in addition to the limit specified here. The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number. We strongly recommend that you read the WARNING documented under Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Director's resource.

Reschedule On Error = <yes|no>
If this directive is enabled, and the job terminates in error, the job will be rescheduled as determined by the Reschedule Interval and Reschedule Times directives. If you cancel the job, it will not be rescheduled. The default is no (i.e. the job will not be rescheduled).

This specification can be useful for portables, laptops, or other machines that are not always connected to the network or switched on.

Reschedule Interval = <time-specification>
If you have specified Reschedule On Error = yes and the job terminates in error, it will be rescheduled after the interval of time specified by time-specification. See the time specification formats in the Configure chapter for details of time specifications. If no interval is specified, the job will not be rescheduled on error.

Reschedule Times = <count>
This directive specifies the maximum number of times to reschedule the job. If it is set to zero (the default) the job will be rescheduled an indefinite number of times.

Run = <job-name>
The Run directive (not to be confused with the Run option in a Schedule) allows you to start other jobs or to clone jobs. By using the cloning keywords (see below), you can backup the same data (or almost the same data) to two or more drives at the same time. The job-name is normally the same name as the current Job resource (thus creating a clone). However, it may be any Job name, so one job may start other related jobs.

The part after the equal sign must be enclosed in double quotes, and can contain any string or set of options (overrides) that you can specify when entering the Run command from the console. For example storage=DDS-4 .... In addition, there are two special keywords that permit you to clone the current job. They are level=%l and since=%s. The %l in the level keyword permits entering the actual level of the current job and the %s in the since keyword permits putting the same time for comparison as used on the current job. Note, in the case of the since keyword, the %s must be enclosed in double quotes, and thus they must be preceded by a backslash since they are already inside quotes. For example:

   run = "Nightly-backup level=%s since=\"%s\" storage=DDS-4"

A cloned job will not start additional clones, so it is not possible to recurse.

Priority = <number>
This directive permits you to control the order in which your jobs run by specifying a positive non-zero number. The higher the number, the lower the job priority. Assuming you are not running concurrent jobs, all queued jobs of priority 1 will run before queued jobs of priority 2 and so on, regardless of the original scheduling order.

The priority only affects waiting jobs that are queued to run, not jobs that are already running. If one or more jobs of priority 2 are already running, and a new job is scheduled with priority 1, the currently running priority 2 jobs must complete before the priority 1 job is run.

The default priority is 10.

If you want to run concurrent jobs you should keep these points in mind:

If you have several jobs of different priority, it may not best to start them at exactly the same time, because Bacula must examine them one at a time. If by Bacula starts a lower priority job first, then it will run before your high priority jobs. If you experience this problem, you may avoid it by starting any higher priority jobs a few seconds before lower priority ones. This insures that Bacula will examine the jobs in the correct order, and that your priority scheme will be respected.

Write Part After Job = <yes|no>
This directive is only implemented in version 1.37 and later. If this directive is set to yes (default no), a new part file will be created after the job is finished.

It should be set to yes when writing to devices that require mount (for example DVD), so you are sure that the current part, containing this job's data, is written to the device, and that no data is left in the temporary file on the hard disk. However, on some media, like DVD+R and DVD-R, a lot of space (about 10Mb) is lost every time a part is written. So, if you run several jobs each after another, you could set this directive to no for all jobs, except the last one, to avoid wasting too much space, but to ensure that the data is written to the medium when all jobs are finished.

It is ignored with tape and FIFO devices.

The following is an example of a valid Job resource definition:

Job {
  Name = "Minou"
  Type = Backup
  Level = Incremental                 # default
  Client = Minou
  FileSet="Minou Full Set"
  Storage = DLTDrive
  Pool = Default
  Schedule = "MinouWeeklyCycle"
  Messages = Standard
}


The JobDefs Resource

The JobDefs resource permits all the same directives that can appear in a Job resource. However, a JobDefs resource does not create a Job, rather it can be referenced within a Job to provide defaults for that Job. This permits you to concisely define several nearly identical Jobs, each one referencing a JobDefs resource which contains the defaults. Only the changes from the defaults need to be mentioned in each Job.


The Schedule Resource

The Schedule resource provides a means of automatically scheduling a Job as well as the ability to override the default Level, Pool, Storage and Messages resources. If a Schedule resource is not referenced in a Job, the Job can only be run manually. In general, you specify an action to be taken and when.

Schedule
Start of the Schedule directives. No Schedule resource is required, but you will need at least one if you want Jobs to be automatically started.

Name = <name>
The name of the schedule being defined. The Name directive is required.

Run = <Job-overrides> <Date-time-specification>
The Run directive defines when a Job is to be run, and what overrides if any to apply. You may specify multiple run directives within a Schedule resource. If you do, they will all be applied (i.e. multiple schedules). If you have two Run directives that start at the same time, two Jobs will start at the same time (well, within one second of each other).

The Job-overrides permit overriding the Level, the Storage, the Messages, and the Pool specifications provided in the Job resource. In addition, the FullPool, the IncrementalPool, and the DifferentialPool specifications permit overriding the Pool specification according to what backup Job Level is in effect.

By the use of overrides, you may customize a particular Job. For example, you may specify a Messages override for your Incremental backups that outputs messages to a log file, but for your weekly or monthly Full backups, you may send the output by email by using a different Messages override.

Job-overrides are specified as: keyword=value where the keyword is Level, Storage, Messages, Pool, FullPool, DifferentialPool, or IncrementalPool, and the value is as defined on the respective directive formats for the Job resource. You may specify multiple Job-overrides on one Run directive by separating them with one or more spaces or by separating them with a trailing comma. For example:

Level=Full
is all files in the FileSet whether or not they have changed.

Level=Incremental
is all files that have changed since the last backup.

Pool=Weekly
specifies to use the Pool named Weekly.

Storage=DLT_Drive
specifies to use DLT_Drive for the storage device.

Messages=Verbose
specifies to use the Verbose message resource for the Job.

FullPool=Full
specifies to use the Pool named Full if the job is a full backup, or is upgraded from another type to a full backup.

DifferentialPool=Differential
specifies to use the Pool named Differential if the job is a differential backup.

IncrementalPool=Incremental
specifies to use the Pool named Incremental if the job is an incremental backup.

SpoolData=yes|no
tells Bacula to request the Storage daemon to spool data to a disk file before putting it on tape.

WritePartAfterJob=yes|no
tells Bacula to request the Storage daemon to write the current part file to the device when the job is finished (see Write Part After Job directive in the Job resource). Please note, this directive is implemented only in version 1.37 and later.

Date-time-specification determines when the Job is to be run. The specification is a repetition, and as a default Bacula is set to run a job at the beginning of the hour of every hour of every day of every week of every month of every year. This is not normally what you want, so you must specify or limit when you want the job to run. Any specification given is assumed to be repetitive in nature and will serve to override or limit the default repetition. This is done by specifying masks or times for the hour, day of the month, day of the week, week of the month, week of the year, and month when you want the job to run. By specifying one or more of the above, you can define a schedule to repeat at almost any frequency you want.

Basically, you must supply a month, day, hour, and minute the Job is to be run. Of these four items to be specified, day is special in that you may either specify a day of the month such as 1, 2, ... 31, or you may specify a day of the week such as Monday, Tuesday, ... Sunday. Finally, you may also specify a week qualifier to restrict the schedule to the first, second, third, fourth, or fifth week of the month.

For example, if you specify only a day of the week, such as Tuesday the Job will be run every hour of every Tuesday of every Month. That is the month and hour remain set to the defaults of every month and all hours.

Note, by default with no other specification, your job will run at the beginning of every hour. If you wish your job to run more than once in any given hour, you will need to specify multiple run specifications each with a different minute.

The date/time to run the Job can be specified in the following way in pseudo-BNF:

<void-keyword>    = on
<at-keyword>      = at
<week-keyword>    = 1st | 2nd | 3rd | 4th | 5th | first |
                    second | third | forth | fifth
<wday-keyword>    = sun | mon | tue | wed | thu | fri | sat |
                    sunday | monday | tuesday | wednesday |
                    thursday | friday | saturday
<week-of-year-keyword> = w00 | w01 | ... w52 | w53
<month-keyword>   = jan | feb | mar | apr | may | jun | jul |
                    aug | sep | oct | nov | dec | january |
                    february | ... | december
<daily-keyword>   = daily
<weekly-keyword>  = weekly
<monthly-keyword> = monthly
<hourly-keyword>  = hourly
<digit>           = 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0
<number>          = <digit> | <digit><number>
<12hour>          = 0 | 1 | 2 | ... 12
<hour>            = 0 | 1 | 2 | ... 23
<minute>          = 0 | 1 | 2 | ... 59
<day>             = 1 | 2 | ... 31
<time>            = <hour>:<minute> |
                    <12hour>:<minute>am |
                    <12hour>:<minute>pm
<time-spec>       = <at-keyword> <time> |
                    <hourly-keyword>
<date-keyword>    = <void-keyword>  <weekly-keyword>
<day-range>       = <day>-<day>
<month-range>     = <month-keyword>-<month-keyword>
<wday-range>      = <wday-keyword>-<wday-keyword>
<range>           = <day-range> | <month-range> |
                          <wday-range>
<date>            = <date-keyword> | <day> | <range>
<date-spec>       = <date> | <date-spec>
<day-spec>        = <day> | <wday-keyword> |
                    <day-range> | <wday-range> |
                    <daily-keyword>
<day-spec>        = <day> | <wday-keyword> |
                    <day> | <wday-range> |
                    <week-keyword> <wday-keyword> |
                    <week-keyword> <wday-range>
<month-spec>      = <month-keyword> | <month-range> |
                    <monthly-keyword>
<date-time-spec>  = <month-spec> <day-spec> <time-spec>

Note, the Week of Year specification wnn follows the ISO standard definition of the week of the year, where Week 1 is the week in which the first Thursday of the year occurs, or alternatively, the week which contains the 4th of January. Weeks are numbered w01 to w53. w00 for Bacula is the week that precedes the first ISO week (i.e. has the first few days of the year if any occur before Thursday). w00 is not defined by the ISO specification. A week starts with Monday and ends with Sunday.

An example schedule resource that is named WeeklyCycle and runs a job with level full each Sunday at 1:05am and an incremental job Monday through Saturday at 1:05am is:

Schedule {
  Name = "WeeklyCycle"
  Run = Level=Full sun at 1:05
  Run = Level=Incremental mon-sat at 1:05
}

An example of a possible monthly cycle is as follows:

Schedule {
  Name = "MonthlyCycle"
  Run = Level=Full Pool=Monthly 1st sun at 1:05
  Run = Level=Differential 2nd-5th sun at 1:05
  Run = Level=Incremental Pool=Daily mon-sat at 1:05
}

The first of every month:

Schedule {
  Name = "First"
  Run = Level=Full on 1 at 1:05
  Run = Level=Incremental on 2-31 at 1:05
}

Every 10 minutes:

Schedule {
  Name = "TenMinutes"
  Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:05
  Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:15
  Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:25
  Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:35
  Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:45
  Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:55
}

Technical Notes on Schedules

Internally Bacula keeps a schedule as a bit mask. There are six masks and a minute field to each schedule. The masks are hour, day of the month (mday), month, day of the week (wday), week of the month (wom), and week of the year (woy). The schedule is initialized to have the bits of each of these masks set, which means that at the beginning of every hour, the job will run. When you specify a month for the first time, the mask will be cleared and the bit corresponding to your selected month will be selected. If you specify a second month, the bit corresponding to it will also be added to the mask. Thus when Bacula checks the masks to see if the bits are set corresponding to the current time, your job will run only in the two months you have set. Likewise, if you set a time (hour), the hour mask will be cleared, and the hour you specify will be set in the bit mask and the minutes will be stored in the minute field.

For any schedule you have defined, you can see how these bits are set by doing a show schedules command in the Console program. Please note that the bit mask is zero based, and Sunday is the first day of the week (bit zero).

-


The FileSet Resource

The FileSet resource defines what files are to be included or excluded in a backup job. A FileSet resource is required for each backup Job. It consists of a list of files or directories to be included, a list of files or directories to be excluded and the various backup options such as compression, encryption, and signatures that are to be applied to each file.

Any change to the list of the included files will cause Bacula to automatically create a new FileSet (defined by the name and an MD5 checksum of the Include/Exclude contents). Each time a new FileSet is created, Bacula will ensure that the next backup is always a Full save.

FileSet
Start of the FileSet resource. One FileSet resource must be defined for each Backup job.

Name = <name>
The name of the FileSet resource. This directive is required.

Ignore FileSet Changes = <yes|no>
Normally, if you modify the FileSet Include or Exclude lists, the next backup will be forced to a Full so that Bacula can guarantee that any additions or deletions are properly backed up. If this directive is set to yes, any changes you make to the FileSet Include or Exclude lists will be ignored and not cause Bacula to immediately perform a Full backup. The default is no, in which case, if you change the Include or Exclude, Bacula will force a Full backup to ensure that everything is properly backed up. It is not recommended to set this directive to yes.

Enable VSS = <yes|no>
If this directive is set to yes the File daemon will be notified that the user wants to use a Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) backup for this job. The default is no. This directive is effective only for VSS enabled Win32 File daemons. It permits a consistent copy of open files to be made for cooperating writer applications, and for applications that are not VSS away, Bacula can at least copy open files. For more information, please see the Windows chapter of this manual.

Include { Options {<file-options>} ...; <file-list> }

Options { <file-options> }

Exclude { <file-list> }

The Include resource must contain a list of directories and/or files to be processed in the backup job. Normally, all files found in all subdirectories of any directory in the Include File list will be backed up. Note, see below for the definition of <file-list>. The Include resource may also contain one or more Options resources that specify options such as compression to be applied to all or any subset of the files found when processing the file-list for backup. Please see below for more details concerning Options resources.

There can be any number of Include resources within the FileSet, each having its own list of directories or files to be backed up and the backup options defined by one or more Options resources. The file-list consists of one file or directory name per line. Directory names should be specified without a trailing slash with Unix path notation.

Windows users, please take note to specify directories (even c:/...) in Unix path notation. If you use Windows conventions, you will most likely not be able to restore your files due to the fact that the Windows path separator was defined as an escape character long before Windows existed, and Bacula adheres to that convention (i.e.
means the next character appears as itself).

You should always specify a full path for every directory and file that you list in the FileSet. In addition, on Windows machines, you should always prefix the directory or filename with the drive specification in lower case (e.g. c:/xxx) using Unix directory name separators (forward slash).

Bacula's default for processing directories is to recursively descend in the directory saving all files and subdirectories. Bacula will not by default cross filesystems (or mount points in Unix parlance). This means that if you specify the root partition (e.g. /), Bacula will save only the root partition and not any of the other mounted filesystems. Similarly on Windows systems, you must explicitly specify each of the drives you want saved (e.g. c:/ and d:/ ...). In addition, at least for Windows systems, you will most likely want to enclose each specification within double quotes particularly if the directory (or file) name contains spaces. The df command on Unix systems will show you which mount points you must specify to save everything. See below for an example.

Take special care not to include a directory twice or Bacula will backup the same files two times wasting a lot of space on your archive device. Including a directory twice is very easy to do. For example:

  Include {
    File = /
    File = /usr
    Options { compression=GZIP }
  }

on a Unix system where /usr is a subdirectory (rather than a mounted filesystem) will cause /usr to be backed up twice. In this case, on Bacula versions prior to 1.32f-5-09Mar04 due to a bug, you will not be able to restore hard linked files that were backed up twice.

If you have used Bacula prior to version 1.36.3, you will note three things in the new FileSet syntax:

  1. There is no equal sign (=) after the Include and before the opening brace ({). The same is true for the Exclude.
  2. Each directory (or filename) to be included or excluded is preceded by a File =. Previously they were simply listed on separate lines.
  3. The options that previously appeared on the Include line now must be specified within their own Options resource.
  4. The Exclude resource does not accept Options.
  5. When using wild-cards or regular expressions, directory names are always terminated with a slash (/) and filenames have no trailing slash.

The Options resource is optional, but when specified, it will contain a list of keyword=value options to be applied to the file-list. See below for the definition of file-list. Multiple Options resources may be specified one after another. As the files are found in the specified directories, the Options will applied to the filenames to determine if and how the file should be backed up. The wildcard and regular expression pattern matching parts of the Options resources are checked in the order they are specified in the FileSet until the first one that matches. Once one matches, the compression and other flags within the Options specification will apply to the pattern matched.

A key point is that in the absence of an Option or no other Option is matched, every file is accepted for backing up. This means that if you want to exclude something, you must explicitly specify an Option with an exclude = yes and some pattern matching.

Once Bacula determines that the Options resource matches the file under consideration, that file will be saved without looking at any other Options resources that may be present. This means that any wild cards must appear before an Options resource without wild cards.

If for some reason, Bacula checks all the Options resources to a file under consideration for backup, but there are no matches (generally because of wild cards that don't match), Bacula as a default will then backup the file. This is quite logical if you consider the case of no Options clause is specified, where you want everything to be backed up, and it is important to keep in mind when excluding as mentioned above.

However, one additional point is that in the case that no match was found, Bacula will use the options found in the last Options resource. As a consequence, if you want a particular set of "default" options, you should put them in an Options resource after any other Options.

It is a good idea to put all your wild-card and regex expressions inside double quotes to prevent conf file scanning problems.

This is perhaps a bit overwhelming, so there are a number of examples included below to illustrate how this works.

The directives within an Options resource may be one of the following:

compression=GZIP
All files saved will be software compressed using the GNU ZIP compression format. The compression is done on a file by file basis by the File daemon. If there is a problem reading the tape in a single record of a file, it will at most affect that file and none of the other files on the tape. Normally this option is not needed if you have a modern tape drive as the drive will do its own compression. In fact, if you specify software compression at the same time you have hardware compression turned on, your files may actually take more space on the volume.

Software compression is very important if you are writing your Volumes to a file, and it can also be helpful if you have a fast computer but a slow network, otherwise it is generally better to rely your tape drive's hardware compression. As noted above, it is not generally a good idea to do both software and hardware compression.

Specifying GZIP uses the default compression level six (i.e. GZIP is identical to GZIP6). If you want a different compression level (1 through 9), you can specify it by appending the level number with no intervening spaces to GZIP. Thus compression=GZIP1 would give minimum compression but the fastest algorithm, and compression=GZIP9 would give the highest level of compression, but requires more computation. According to the GZIP documentation, compression levels greater than 6 generally give very little extra compression and are rather CPU intensive.

signature=SHA1
An SHA1 signature will be computed for all The SHA1 algorithm is purported to be some what slower than the MD5 algorithm, but at the same time is significantly better from a cryptographic point of view (i.e. much fewer collisions, much lower probability of being hacked.) It adds four more bytes than the MD5 signature. We strongly recommend that either this option or MD5 be specified as a default for all files. Note, only one of the two options MD5 or SHA1 can be computed for any file.

signature=MD5
An MD5 signature will be computed for all files saved. Adding this option generates about 5% extra overhead for each file saved. In addition to the additional CPU time, the MD5 signature adds 16 more bytes per file to your catalog. We strongly recommend that this option or the SHA1 option be specified as a default for all files.

verify=<options>
The options letters specified are used when running a Verify Level=Catalog as well as the DiskToCatalog level job. The options letters may be any combination of the following:

i compare the inodes

p compare the permission bits

n compare the number of links

u compare the user id

g compare the group id

s compare the size

a compare the access time

m compare the modification time (st_mtime)

c compare the change time (st_ctime)

s report file size decreases

5 compare the MD5 signature

1 compare the SHA1 signature

A useful set of general options on the Level=Catalog or Level=DiskToCatalog verify is pins5 i.e. compare permission bits, inodes, number of links, size, and MD5 changes.

onefs=yes|no
If set to yes (the default), Bacula will remain on a single file system. That is it will not backup file systems that are mounted on a subdirectory. If you are using a *nix system, you may not even be aware that there are several different filesystems as they are often automatically mounted by the OS (e.g. /dev, /net, /sys, /proc, ...). With Bacula 1.38.0 or later, it will inform you when it decides not to traverse into another filesystem. This can be very useful if you forgot to backup a particular partition. An example of the informational message in the job report is:

rufus-fd: Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /misc
rufus-fd: Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /net
rufus-fd: Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs
rufus-fd: Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /selinux
rufus-fd: Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /sys
rufus-fd: Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /dev
rufus-fd: Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /home
If you wish to backup multiple filesystems, you can explicitly list each filesystem you want saved. Otherwise, if you set the onefs option to no, Bacula will backup all mounted file systems (i.e. traverse mount points) that are found within the FileSet. Thus if you have NFS or Samba file systems mounted on a directory listed in your FileSet, they will also be backed up. Normally, it is preferable to set onefs=yes and to explicitly name each filesystem you want backed up. Explicitly naming the filesystems you want backed up avoids the possibility of getting into a infinite loop recursing filesystems. Another possibility is to use onefs=no and to set fstype=ext2, .... See the example below for more details.

If you think that Bacula should be backing up a particular directory and it is not, and you have onefs=no set, before you complain, please do:

  stat /
  stat <filesystem>

where you replace filesystem with the one in question. If the Device: number is different for / and for your filesystem, then they are on different filesystems. E.g.

stat /
  File: `/'
  Size: 4096            Blocks: 16         IO Block: 4096   directory
Device: 302h/770d       Inode: 2           Links: 26
Access: (0755/drwxr-xr-x)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/    root)
Access: 2005-11-10 12:28:01.000000000 +0100
Modify: 2005-09-27 17:52:32.000000000 +0200
Change: 2005-09-27 17:52:32.000000000 +0200

stat /net
  File: `/home'
  Size: 4096            Blocks: 16         IO Block: 4096   directory
Device: 308h/776d       Inode: 2           Links: 7
Access: (0755/drwxr-xr-x)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/    root)
Access: 2005-11-10 12:28:02.000000000 +0100
Modify: 2005-11-06 12:36:48.000000000 +0100
Change: 2005-11-06 12:36:48.000000000 +0100

Also be aware that even if you include /home in your list of files to backup, as you most likely should, you will get the informational message about Filesystem change prohibited when Bacula is processing the / directory.

portable=yes|no
If set to yes (default is no), the Bacula File daemon will backup Win32 files in a portable format, but not all Win32 file attributes will be saved and restored. By default, this option is set to no, which means that on Win32 systems, the data will be backed up using Windows API calls and on WinNT/2K/XP, all the security and ownership attributes will be properly backed up (and restored). However this format is not portable to other systems -- e.g. Unix, Win95/98/Me. When backing up Unix systems, this option is ignored, and unless you have a specific need to have portable backups, we recommend accept the default (no) so that the maximum information concerning your files is saved.

recurse=yes|no
If set to yes (the default), Bacula will recurse (or descend) into all subdirectories found unless the directory is explicitly excluded using an exclude definition. If you set recurse=no, Bacula will save the subdirectory entries, but not descend into the subdirectories, and thus will not save the files or directories contained in the subdirectories. Normally, you will want the default (yes).

sparse=yes|no
Enable special code that checks for sparse files such as created by ndbm. The default is no, so no checks are made for sparse files. You may specify sparse=yes even on files that are not sparse file. No harm will be done, but there will be a small additional overhead to check for buffers of all zero, and a small additional amount of space on the output archive will be used to save the seek address of each non-zero record read.

Restrictions: Bacula reads files in 32K buffers. If the whole buffer is zero, it will be treated as a sparse block and not written to tape. However, if any part of the buffer is non-zero, the whole buffer will be written to tape, possibly including some disk sectors (generally 4098 bytes) that are all zero. As a consequence, Bacula's detection of sparse blocks is in 32K increments rather than the system block size. If anyone considers this to be a real problem, please send in a request for change with the reason.

If you are not familiar with sparse files, an example is say a file where you wrote 512 bytes at address zero, then 512 bytes at address 1 million. The operating system will allocate only two blocks, and the empty space or hole will have nothing allocated. However, when you read the sparse file and read the addresses where nothing was written, the OS will return all zeros as if the space were allocated, and if you backup such a file, a lot of space will be used to write zeros to the volume. Worse yet, when you restore the file, all the previously empty space will now be allocated using much more disk space. By turning on the sparse option, Bacula will specifically look for empty space in the file, and any empty space will not be written to the Volume, nor will it be restored. The price to pay for this is that Bacula must search each block it reads before writing it. On a slow system, this may be important. If you suspect you have sparse files, you should benchmark the difference or set sparse for only those files that are really sparse.

readfifo=yes|no
If enabled, tells the Client to read the data on a backup and write the data on a restore to any FIFO (pipe) that is explicitly mentioned in the FileSet. In this case, you must have a program already running that writes into the FIFO for a backup or reads from the FIFO on a restore. This can be accomplished with the RunBeforeJob directive. If this is not the case, Bacula will hang indefinitely on reading/writing the FIFO. When this is not enabled (default), the Client simply saves the directory entry for the FIFO.

Unfortunately, when Bacula runs a RunBeforeJob, it waits until that script terminates, and if the script accesses the FIFO to write into the it, the Bacula job will block and everything will stall. However, Vladimir Stavrinov as supplied tip that allows this feature to work correctly. He simply adds the following to the beginning of the RunBeforeJob script:

   exec > /dev/null

mtimeonly=yes|no
If enabled, tells the Client that the selection of files during Incremental and Differential backups should based only on the st_mtime value in the stat() packet. The default is no which means that the selection of files to be backed up will be based on both the st_mtime and the st_ctime values. In general, it is not recommended to use this option.

keepatime=yes|no
The default is no. When enabled, Bacula will reset the st_atime (access time) field of files that it backs up to their value prior to the backup. This option is not generally recommended as there are very few programs that use st_atime, and the backup overhead is increased because of the additional system call necessary to reset the times. However, for some files, such as mailboxes, when Bacula backs up the file, the user will notice that someone (Bacula) has accessed the file. In this, case keepatime can be useful. (I'm not sure this works on Win32).

Note, if you use this feature, when Bacula resets the access time, the change time (st_ctime) will automatically be modified by the system, so on the next incremental job, the file will be backed up even if it has not changed. As a consequence, you will probably also want to use mtimeonly = yes as well as keepatime (thanks to Rudolf Cejka for this tip).

hardlinks=yes|no
When enabled (default), this directive will cause hard inks to be backed up. However, the File daemon keeps track of hard linked files and will backup the data only once. The process of keeping track of the hard links can be quite expensive if you have lots of them (tens of thousands or more). This doesn't occur on normal Unix systems, but if you use a program like BackupPC, it can create hundreds of thousands, or even millions of hard links. Backups become very long and the File daemon will consume a lot of CPU power checking hard links. In such a case, set hardlinks=no and hard links will not be backed up. Note, using this option will most likely backup more data and on a restore the file system will not be restored identically to the original.

wild=<string>
Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to the filenames and directory names. Note, if Exclude is not enabled, the wild-card will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the wild-card will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple wild-card directives may be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. Note, if you exclude a directory, no files or directories below it will be matched.

You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program. Please see the UtilitiesChapter chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.

wilddir=<string>
Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to directory names only. No filenames will be matched by this directive. Note, if Exclude is not enabled, the wild-card will select directories files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the wild-card will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple wild-card directives may be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. Note, if you exclude a directory, no files or directories below it will be matched.

It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.

You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program. Please see the UtilitiesChapter chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. An example of excluding with the WildDir option on Win32 machines is presented below.

wildfile=<string>
Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to non-directories. That is no directory entries will be matched by this directive. However, note that the match is done against the full path and filename, so your wild-card string must take into account that filenames are preceded by the full path. If Exclude is not enabled, the wild-card will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the wild-card will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple wild-card directives may be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches.

It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.

You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program. Please see the UtilitiesChapter chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. An example of excluding with the WildFile option on Win32 machines is presented below.

regex=<string>
Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to the filenames and directory names, which include the full path. If Exclude is not enabled, the regex will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the regex will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple regex directives may be specified within an Options resource, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. Note, if you exclude a directory, no files or directories below it will be matched.

It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.

The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another, and in addition, regular expressions are complicated, so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bregex program. Please see the UtilitiesChapter chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual.

regexfile=<string>
Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to non-directories. No directories will be matched by this directive. However, note that the match is done against the full path and filename, so your regex string must take into account that filenames are preceded by the full path. If Exclude is not enabled, the regex will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the regex will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple regex directives may be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches.

It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.

The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another, and in addition, regular expressions are complicated, so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bregex program. Please see the UtilitiesChapter chapter of this manual for more.

regexdir=<string>
Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to directory names only. No filenames will be matched by this directive. Note, if Exclude is not enabled, the regex will select directories files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the regex will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple regex directives may be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. Note, if you exclude a directory, no files or directories below it will be matched.

It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.

The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another, and in addition, regular expressions are complicated, so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bregex program. Please see the UtilitiesChapter chapter of this manual for more.

exclude=yes|no
The default is no. When enabled, any files matched within the Options will be excluded from the backup.

aclsupport=yes|no
The default is no. If this option is set to yes, and you have the POSIX libacl installed on your system, Bacula will backup the file and directory UNIX Access Control Lists (ACL) as defined in IEEE Std 1003.1e draft 17 and "POSIX.1e" (abandoned). This feature is available on UNIX only and depends on the ACL library. Bacula is automatically compiled with ACL support if the libacl library is installed on your system (shown in config.out). While restoring the files Bacula will try to restore the ACLs, if there is no ACL support available on the system, Bacula restores the files and directories but not the ACL information. Please note, if you backup an EXT3 or XFS filesystem with ACLs, then you restore them to a different filesystem (perhaps reiserfs) that does not have ACLs, the ACLs will be ignored.

ignore case=yes|no
The default is no. On Windows systems, you will almost surely want to set this to yes. When this directive is set to yes all the case of character will be ignored in wild-card and regex comparisons. That is an uppercase A will match a lowercase a.

fstype=filesystem-type
This option allows you to select files and directories by the filesystem type. The permitted filesystem-type names are:

ext2, jfs, ntfs, proc, reiserfs, xfs, usbdevfs, sysfs, smbfs, iso9660. For ext3 systems, use ext2.

You may have multiple Fstype directives, and thus permit matching of multiple filesystem types within a single Options resource. If the type specified on the fstype directive does not match the filesystem for a particular directive, that directory will not be backed up. This directive can be used to prevent backing up non-local filesystems. Normally, when you use this directive, you would also set onefs=no so that Bacula will traverse filesystems.

This option is not implemented in Win32 systems.

hfsplussupport=yes|no
This option allows you to turn on support for Mac OSX HFS plus finder information.

<file-list> is a list of directory and/or filename names specified with a File = directive. To include names containing spaces, enclose the name between double-quotes. Wild-cards are not interpreted in file-lists. They can only be specified in Options resources.

There are a number of special cases when specifying directories and files in a file-list. They are:

FileSet Examples

The following is an example of a valid FileSet resource definition. Note, the first Include pulls in the contents of the file /etc/backup.list when Bacula is started (i.e. the @), and that file must have each filename to be backed up preceded by a File = and on a separate line.

FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {
    Options {
      Compression=GZIP
      signature=SHA1
      Sparse = yes
    }
    @/etc/backup.list
  }
  Include {
     Options {
        wildfile = "*.o"
        wildfile = "*.exe"
        Exclude = yes
     }
     File = /root/myfile
     File = /usr/lib/another_file
  }
}

In the above example, all the files contained in /etc/backup.list will be compressed with GZIP compression, an SHA1 signature will be computed on the file's contents (its data), and sparse file handling will apply.

The two directories /root/myfile and /usr/lib/another_file will also be saved without any options, but all files in those directories with the extensions .o and .exe will be excluded.

Let's say that you now want to exclude the directory /tmp. The simplest way to do so is to add an exclude directive that lists /tmp. The example above would then become:

FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {
    Options {
      Compression=GZIP
      signature=SHA1
      Sparse = yes
    }
    @/etc/backup.list
  }
  Include {
     Options {
        wildfile = "*.o"
        wildfile = "*.exe"
        Exclude = yes
     }
     File = /root/myfile
     File = /usr/lib/another_file
  }
  Exclude {
     File = /tmp
  }
}

You can add wild-cards to the File directives listed in the Exclude directory, but you need to take care because if you exclude a directory, it and all files and directories below it will also be excluded.

Now lets take a slight variation on the above and suppose you want to save all your whole filesystem except /tmp. The problem that comes up is that Bacula will not normally cross from one filesystem to another. Doing a df command, you get the following output:

[kern@rufus k]$ df
Filesystem      1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda5         5044156    439232   4348692  10% /
/dev/hda1           62193      4935     54047   9% /boot
/dev/hda9        20161172   5524660  13612372  29% /home
/dev/hda2           62217      6843     52161  12% /rescue
/dev/hda8         5044156     42548   4745376   1% /tmp
/dev/hda6         5044156   2613132   2174792  55% /usr
none               127708         0    127708   0% /dev/shm
//minimatou/c$   14099200   9895424   4203776  71% /mnt/mmatou
lmatou:/          1554264    215884   1258056  15% /mnt/matou
lmatou:/home      2478140   1589952    760072  68% /mnt/matou/home
lmatou:/usr       1981000   1199960    678628  64% /mnt/matou/usr
lpmatou:/          995116    484112    459596  52% /mnt/pmatou
lpmatou:/home    19222656   2787880  15458228  16% /mnt/pmatou/home
lpmatou:/usr      2478140   2038764    311260  87% /mnt/pmatou/usr
deuter:/          4806936     97684   4465064   3% /mnt/deuter
deuter:/home      4806904    280100   4282620   7% /mnt/deuter/home
deuter:/files    44133352  27652876  14238608  67% /mnt/deuter/files

And we see that there are a number of separate filesystems (/ /boot /home /rescue /tmp and /usr not to mention mounted systems). If you specify only / in your Include list, Bacula will only save the Filesystem /dev/hda5. To save all filesystems except /tmp with out including any of the Samba or NFS mounted systems, and explicitly excluding a /tmp, /proc, .journal, and .autofsck, which you will not want to be saved and restored, you can use the following:

FileSet {
  Name = Include_example
  Include {
    Options {
       wilddir = /proc
       wilddir = /tmp
       wildfile = "/.journal"
       wildfile = "/.autofsck"
       exclude = yes
    }
    File = /
    File = /boot
    File = /home
    File = /rescue
    File = /usr
  }
}

Since /tmp is on its own filesystem and it was not explicitly named in the Include list, it is not really needed in the exclude list. It is better to list it in the Exclude list for clarity, and in case the disks are changed so that it is no longer in its own partition.

Now, lets assume you only want to backup .Z and .gz files and nothing else. This is a bit trickier because Bacula by default will select everything to backup, so we must exclude everything but .Z and .gz files. If we take the first example above and make the obvious modifications to it, we might come up with a FileSet that looks like this:

FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {                    !!!!!!!!!!!!
     Options {                    This
        wildfile = "*.Z"          example
        wildfile = "*.gz"         doesn't
                                  work
     }                          !!!!!!!!!!!!
     File = /myfile
  }
}

The *.Z and *.gz files will indeed be backed up, but all other files that are not matched by the Options directives will automatically be backed up too (i.e. that is the default rule).

To accomplish what we want, we must explicitly exclude all other files. We do this with the following:

FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {
     Options {
        wildfile = "*.Z"
        wildfile = "*.gz"
     }
     Options {
        Exclude = yes
        RegexFile = ".*"
     }
     File = /myfile
  }
}

The "trick" here was to add a RegexFile expression that matches all files. It does not match directory names, so all directories in /myfile will be backed up (the directory entry) and any *.Z and *.gz files contained in them. If you know that certain directories do not contain any *.Z or *.gz files and you do not want the directory entries backed up, you will need to explicitly exclude those directories. Backing up a directory entries is not very expensive.

Bacula uses the system regex library and some of them are different on different OSes. The above has been reported not to work on FreeBSD. This can be tested by using the estimate job=job-name listing command in the console and adapting the RegexFile expression appropriately. In a future version of Bacula, we will supply our own Regex code to avoid such system dependencies.

Please be aware that allowing Bacula to traverse or change file systems can be very dangerous. For example, with the following:

FileSet {
  Name = "Bad example"
  Include {
    Options { onefs=no }
    File = /mnt/matou
  }
}

you will be backing up an NFS mounted partition (/mnt/matou), and since onefs is set to no, Bacula will traverse file systems. Now if /mnt/matou has the current machine's file systems mounted, as is often the case, you will get yourself into a recursive loop and the backup will never end.

As a final example, let's say that you have only one or two subdirectories of /home that you want to backup. For example, you want to backup only subdirectories beginning with the letter a and the letter b -- i.e. /home/a* and /home/b*. Now, you might first try:

FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {
     Options {
        wilddir = "/home/a*"
        wilddir = "/home/b*"
     }
     File = /home
  }
}

The problem is that the above will include everything in /home. To get things to work correctly, you need to start with the idea of exclusion instead of inclusion. So, you could simply exclude all directories except the two you want to use:

FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {
     Options {
        RegexDir = "^/home/[c-z]"
        exclude = yes
     }
     File = /home
  }
}

And assuming that all subdirectories start with a lowercase letter, this would work.

An alternative would be to include the two subdirectories desired and exclude everything else:

FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {
     Options {
        wilddir = "/home/a*"
        wilddir = "/home/b*"
     }
     Options {
        RegexDir = ".*"
        exclude = yes
     }
     File = /home
  }
}

Backing up Raw Partitions

The following FileSet definition will backup a raw partition:

FileSet {
  Name = "RawPartition"
  Include {
    Options { sparse=yes }
    File = /dev/hda2
  }
}

While backing up and restoring a raw partition, you should ensure that no other process including the system is writing to that partition. As a precaution, you are strongly urged to ensure that the raw partition is not mounted or is mounted read-only. If necessary, this can be done using the RunBeforeJob directive.

Excluding Files and Directories

You may also include full filenames or directory names in addition to using wild-cards and Exclude=yes in the Options resource as specified above by simply including the files to be excluded in an Exclude resource within the FileSet. For example:

FileSet {
  Name = Exclusion_example
  Include {
    Options {
      Signature = SHA1
    }
    File = /
    File = /boot
    File = /home
    File = /rescue
    File = /usr
  }
  Exclude {
    File = /proc
    File = /tmp
    File = .journal
    File = .autofsck
  }
}

Windows FileSets

If you are entering Windows file names, the directory path may be preceded by the drive and a colon (as in c:). However, the path separators must be specified in Unix convention (i.e. forward slash (/)). If you wish to include a quote in a file name, precede the quote with a backslash (\). For example you might use the following for a Windows machine to backup the "My Documents" directory:

FileSet {
  Name = "Windows Set"
  Include {
    Options {
       WildFile = "*.obj"
       WildFile = "*.exe"
       exclude = yes
     }
     File = "c:/My Documents"
  }
}

For exclude lists to work correctly on Windows, you must observe the following rules:

Thanks to Thiago Lima for summarizing the above items for us. If you are having difficulties getting includes or excludes to work, you might want to try using the estimate job=xxx listing command documented in the Console chapter of this manual.

On Win32 systems, if you move a directory or file or rename a file into the set of files being backed up, and a Full backup has already been made, Bacula will not know there are new files to be saved during an Incremental or Differential backup (blame Microsoft, not me). To avoid this problem, please copy any new directory or files into the backup area. If you do not have enough disk to copy the directory or files, move them, but then initiate a Full backup.

A Windows Example FileSet

The following example was contributed by Russell Howe. Please note that for presentation purposes, the lines beginning with Data and Internet have been wrapped and should included on the previous line with one space.

This is my Windows 2000 fileset:
FileSet {
 Name = "Windows 2000"
 Include {
  Options {
   signature = MD5
   Exclude = yes
   IgnoreCase = yes
   # Exclude Mozilla-based programs' file caches
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application 
Data/*/Profiles/*/*/Cache"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application 
Data/*/Profiles/*/*/Cache.Trash"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application
Data/*/Profiles/*/*/ImapMail"

   # Exclude user's registry files - they're always in use anyway.
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Application
Data/Microsoft/Windows/usrclass.*"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/ntuser.*"

   # Exclude directories full of lots and lots of useless little files
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Cookies"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Recent"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/History"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Temp"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Temporary
Internet Files"

   # These are always open and unable to be backed up
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/All Users/Application
Data/Microsoft/Network/Downloader/qmgr[01].dat"

   # Some random bits of Windows we want to ignore
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/security/logs/scepol.log"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/config"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/msdownld.tmp"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/Internet Logs"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/$Nt*Uninstall*"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/sysvol"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/cluster/CLUSDB"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/cluster/CLUSDB.LOG"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/edb.log"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/ntds.dit"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/temp.edb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/log/edb.log"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/ntfrs.jdb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/temp/tmp.edb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/CPL.CFG"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/dhcp.mdb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/j50.log"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/tmp.edb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/edb.log"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/TLSLic.edb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/tmp.edb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/j50.log"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/wins.mdb"
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/winstmp.mdb"

   # Temporary directories & files
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/Temp"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/temp"
   WildFile = "*.tmp"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/tmp"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/var/tmp"

   # Recycle bins
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/RECYCLER"

   # Swap files
   WildFile = "[A-Z]:/pagefile.sys"

   # These are programs and are easier to reinstall than restore from
   # backup
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/cygwin"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Grisoft"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Java"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Java Web Start"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/JavaSoft"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Microsoft Office"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Mozilla Firefox"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Mozilla Thunderbird"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/mozilla.org"
   WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/OpenOffice*"
  }

  # Our Win2k boxen all have C: and D: as the main hard drives.
  File = "C:/"
  File = "D:/"
 }
}

Note, the three line of the above Exclude were split to fit on the document page, they should be written on a single line in real use.

Windows NTFS Naming Considerations

NTFS filenames containing Unicode characters should now be supported as of version 1.37.30 or later.

Testing Your FileSet

If you wish to get an idea of what your FileSet will really backup or if your exclusion rules will work correctly, you can test it by using the estimate command in the Console program. See the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual.

As an example, suppose you add the following test FileSet:

FileSet {
  Name = Test
  Include {
    File = /home/xxx/test
    Options {
       regex = ".*\.c$"
    }
  }
}

You could then add some test files to the directory /home/xxx/test and use the following command in the console:

estimate job=<any-job-name> listing client=<desired-client> fileset=Test

to give you a listing of all files that match.


The Client Resource

The Client resource defines the attributes of the Clients that are served by this Director; that is the machines that are to be backed up. You will need one Client resource definition for each machine to be backed up.

Client (or FileDaemon)
Start of the Client directives.

Name = <name>
The client name which will be used in the Job resource directive or in the console run command. This directive is required.

Address = <address>
Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or a network address in dotted quad notation for a Bacula File server daemon. This directive is required.

FD Port = <port-number>
Where the port is a port number at which the Bacula File server daemon can be contacted. The default is 9102.

Catalog = <Catalog-resource-name>
This specifies the name of the catalog resource to be used for this Client. This directive is required.

Password = <password>
This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the File services, so the Client configuration file on the machine to be backed up must have the same password defined for this Director. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process, otherwise it will be left blank.

File Retention = <time-period-specification>
The File Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep File records in the Catalog database. When this time period expires, and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula will prune (remove) File records that are older than the specified File Retention period. Note, this affects only records in the catalog database. It does not affect your archive backups.

File records may actually be retained for a shorter period than you specify on this directive if you specify either a shorter Job Retention or a shorter Volume Retention period. The shortest retention period of the three takes precedence. The time may be expressed in seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, or years. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification.

The default is 60 days.

Job Retention = <time-period-specification>
The Job Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep Job records in the Catalog database. When this time period expires, and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified File Retention period. As with the other retention periods, this affects only records in the catalog and not data in your archive backup.

If a Job record is selected for pruning, all associated File and JobMedia records will also be pruned regardless of the File Retention period set. As a consequence, you normally will set the File retention period to be less than the Job retention period. The Job retention period can actually be less than the value you specify here if you set the Volume Retention directive in the Pool resource to a smaller duration. This is because the Job retention period and the Volume retention period are independently applied, so the smaller of the two takes precedence.

The Job retention period is specified as seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, or years. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification.

The default is 180 days.

AutoPrune = <yes|no>
If AutoPrune is set to yes (default), Bacula (version 1.20 or greater) will automatically apply the File retention period and the Job retention period for the Client at the end of the Job. If you set AutoPrune = no, pruning will not be done, and your Catalog will grow in size each time you run a Job. Pruning affects only information in the catalog and not data stored in the backup archives (on Volumes).

Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number>
where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs with the current Client that can run concurrently. Note, this directive limits only Jobs for Clients with the same name as the resource in which it appears. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs such as in the Director, Job, or Storage resources will also apply in addition to any limit specified here. The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number. We strongly recommend that you read the WARNING documented under Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Director's resource.

Priority = <number>
The number specifies the priority of this client relative to other clients that the Director is processing simultaneously. The priority can range from 1 to 1000. The clients are ordered such that the smaller number priorities are performed first (not currently implemented).

The following is an example of a valid Client resource definition:

Client {
  Name = Minimatou
  Address = minimatou
  Catalog = MySQL
  Password = very_good
}


The Storage Resource

The Storage resource defines which Storage daemons are available for use by the Director.

Storage
Start of the Storage resources. At least one storage resource must be specified.

Name = <name>
The name of the storage resource. This name appears on the Storage directive specified in the Job resource and is required.

Address = <address>
Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or an IP address. Please note that the <address> as specified here will be transmitted to the File daemon who will then use it to contact the Storage daemon. Hence, it is not, a good idea to use localhost as the name but rather a fully qualified machine name or an IP address. This directive is required.

SD Port = <port>
Where port is the port to use to contact the storage daemon for information and to start jobs. This same port number must appear in the Storage resource of the Storage daemon's configuration file. The default is 9103.

Password = <password>
This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the Storage services. This same password also must appear in the Director resource of the Storage daemon's configuration file. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process, otherwise it will be left blank.

Device = <device-name>
This directive specifies the Storage daemon's name of the device resource to be used for the storage. This name is not the physical device name, but the logical device name as defined on the Name directive contained in the Device resource definition of the Storage daemon configuration file or if the device is an Autochanger, you must put the name as defined on the Name directive contained in the Autochanger resource definition of the Storage daemon. You can specify any name you would like (even the device name if you prefer) up to a maximum of 127 characters in length. The physical device name associated with this device is specified in the Storage daemon configuration file (as Archive Device). Please take care not to define two different Storage resource directives in the Director that point to the same Device in the Storage daemon. Doing so may cause the Storage daemon to block (or hang) attempting to open the same device that is already open. This directive is required.

Media Type = <MediaType>
This directive specifies the Media Type to be used to store the data. This is an arbitrary string of characters up to 127 maximum that you define. It can be anything you want. However, it is best to make it descriptive of the storage media (e.g. File, DAT, "HP DLT8000", 8mm, ...). In addition, it is essential that you make the Media Type specification unique for each storage media type. If you have two DDS-4 drives that have incompatible formats, or if you have a DDS-4 drive and a DDS-4 autochanger, you almost certainly should specify different Media Types. During a restore, assuming a DDS-4 Media Type is associated with the Job, Bacula can decide to use any Storage daemon that supports Media Type DDS-4 and on any drive that supports it.

Currently Bacula permits only a single Media Type. Consequently, if you have a drive that supports more than one Media Type, you can give a unique string to Volumes with different intrinsic Media Type (Media Type = DDS-3-4 for DDS-3 and DDS-4 types), but then those volumes will only be mounted on drives indicated with the dual type (DDS-3-4).

If you want to tie Bacula to using a single Storage daemon or drive, you must specify a unique Media Type for that drive. This is an important point that should be carefully understood. Note, this applies equally to Disk Volumes. If you define more than one disk Device resource in your Storage daemon's conf file, the Volumes on those two devices are in fact incompatible because one can not be mounted on the other device since they are found in different directories. For this reason, you probably should use two different Media Types for your two disk Devices (even though you might think of them as both being File types). You can find more on this subject in the Basic Volume Management chapter of this manual.

The MediaType specified here, must correspond to the Media Type specified in the Device resource of the Storage daemon configuration file. This directive is required, and it is used by the Director and the Storage daemon to ensure that a Volume automatically selected from the Pool corresponds to the physical device. If a Storage daemon handles multiple devices (e.g. will write to various file Volumes on different partitions), this directive allows you to specify exactly which device.

As mentioned above, the value specified in the Director's Storage resource must agree with the value specified in the Device resource in the Storage daemon's configuration file. It is also an additional check so that you don't try to write data for a DLT onto an 8mm device.

Autochanger = <yes|no>
If you specify yes for this command (the default is no), when you use the label command or the add command to create a new Volume, Bacula will also request the Autochanger Slot number. This simplifies creating database entries for Volumes in an autochanger. If you forget to specify the Slot, the autochanger will not be used. However, you may modify the Slot associated with a Volume at any time by using the update volume command in the console program. When autochanger is enabled, the algorithm used by Bacula to search for available volumes will be modified to consider only Volumes that are known to be in the autochanger's magazine. If no in changer volume is found, Bacula will attempt recycling, pruning, ..., and if still no volume is found, Bacula will search for any volume whether or not in the magazine. By privileging in changer volumes, this procedure minimizes operator intervention. The default is no.

For the autochanger to be used, you must also specify Autochanger = yes in the Device Resource in the Storage daemon's configuration file as well as other important Storage daemon configuration information. Please consult the Using Autochangers manual of this chapter for the details of using autochangers.

Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number>
where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs with the current Storage resource that can run concurrently. Note, this directive limits only Jobs for Jobs using this Storage daemon. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs such as in the Director, Job, or Client resources will also apply in addition to any limit specified here. The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number. However, if you set the Storage daemon's number of concurrent jobs greater than one, we recommend that you read the waring documented under Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Director's resource or simply turn data spooling on as documented in the Data Spooling chapter of this manual.

The following is an example of a valid Storage resource definition:

# Definition of tape storage device
Storage {
  Name = DLTDrive
  Address = lpmatou
  Password = storage_password # password for Storage daemon
  Device = "HP DLT 80"    # same as Device in Storage daemon
  Media Type = DLT8000    # same as MediaType in Storage daemon
}


The Pool Resource

The Pool resource defines the set of storage Volumes (tapes or files) to be used by Bacula to write the data. By configuring different Pools, you can determine which set of Volumes (media) receives the backup data. This permits, for example, to store all full backup data on one set of Volumes and all incremental backups on another set of Volumes. Alternatively, you could assign a different set of Volumes to each machine that you backup. This is most easily done by defining multiple Pools.

Another important aspect of a Pool is that it contains the default attributes (Maximum Jobs, Retention Period, Recycle flag, ...) that will be given to a Volume when it is created. This avoids the need for you to answer a large number of questions when labeling a new Volume. Each of these attributes can later be changed on a Volume by Volume basis using the update command in the console program. Note that you must explicitly specify which Pool Bacula is to use with each Job. Bacula will not automatically search for the correct Pool.

Most often in Bacula installations all backups for all machines (Clients) go to a single set of Volumes. In this case, you will probably only use the Default Pool. If your backup strategy calls for you to mount a different tape each day, you will probably want to define a separate Pool for each day. For more information on this subject, please see the Backup Strategies chapter of this manual.

To use a Pool, there are three distinct steps. First the Pool must be defined in the Director's configuration file. Then the Pool must be written to the Catalog database. This is done automatically by the Director each time that it starts, or alternatively can be done using the create command in the console program. Finally, if you change the Pool definition in the Director's configuration file and restart Bacula, the pool will be updated alternatively you can use the update pool console command to refresh the database image. It is this database image rather than the Director's resource image that is used for the default Volume attributes. Note, for the pool to be automatically created or updated, it must be explicitly referenced by a Job resource.

Next the physical media must be labeled. The labeling can either be done with the label command in the console program or using the btape program. The preferred method is to use the label command in the console program.

Finally, you must add Volume names (and their attributes) to the Pool. For Volumes to be used by Bacula they must be of the same Media Type as the archive device specified for the job (i.e. if you are going to back up to a DLT device, the Pool must have DLT volumes defined since 8mm volumes cannot be mounted on a DLT drive). The Media Type has particular importance if you are backing up to files. When running a Job, you must explicitly specify which Pool to use. Bacula will then automatically select the next Volume to use from the Pool, but it will ensure that the Media Type of any Volume selected from the Pool is identical to that required by the Storage resource you have specified for the Job.

If you use the label command in the console program to label the Volumes, they will automatically be added to the Pool, so this last step is not normally required.

It is also possible to add Volumes to the database without explicitly labeling the physical volume. This is done with the add console command.

As previously mentioned, each time Bacula starts, it scans all the Pools associated with each Catalog, and if the database record does not already exist, it will be created from the Pool Resource definition. Bacula probably should do an update pool if you change the Pool definition, but currently, you must do this manually using the update pool command in the Console program.

The Pool Resource defined in the Director's configuration file (bacula-dir.conf) may contain the following directives:

Pool
Start of the Pool resource. There must be at least one Pool resource defined.

Name = <name>
The name of the pool. For most applications, you will use the default pool name Default. This directive is required.

Maximum Volumes = <number>
This directive specifies the maximum number of volumes (tapes or files) contained in the pool. This directive is optional, if omitted or set to zero, any number of volumes will be permitted. In general, this directive is useful for Autochangers where there is a fixed number of Volumes, or for File storage where you wish to ensure that the backups made to disk files do not become too numerous or consume too much space.

Pool Type = <type>
This directive defines the pool type, which corresponds to the type of Job being run. It is required and may be one of the following:

Backup
*Archive
*Cloned
*Migration
*Copy
*Save

Use Volume Once = <yes|no>
This directive if set to yes specifies that each volume is to be used only once. This is most useful when the Media is a file and you want a new file for each backup that is done. The default is no (i.e. use volume any number of times). This directive will most likely be phased out (deprecated), so you are recommended to use Maximum Volume Jobs = 1 instead.

The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console.

Maximum Volume Jobs = <positive-integer>
This directive specifies the maximum number of Jobs that can be written to the Volume. If you specify zero (the default), there is no limit. Otherwise, when the number of Jobs backed up to the Volume equals positive-integer the Volume will be marked Used. When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs, much like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled, and thus used again. By setting MaximumVolumeJobs to one, you get the same effect as setting UseVolumeOnce = yes.

The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console.

Maximum Volume Files = <positive-integer>
This directive specifies the maximum number of files that can be written to the Volume. If you specify zero (the default), there is no limit. Otherwise, when the number of files written to the Volume equals positive-integer the Volume will be marked Used. When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs, much like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled and thus used again. This value is checked and the Used status is set only at the end of a job that writes to the particular volume.

The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console.

Maximum Volume Bytes = <size>
This directive specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be written to the Volume. If you specify zero (the default), there is no limit except the physical size of the Volume. Otherwise, when the number of bytes written to the Volume equals size the Volume will be marked Used. When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs, much like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled, and thus the Volume can be re-used after recycling. This value is checked and the Used status set while the job is writing to the particular volume.

The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console.

Volume Use Duration = <time-period-specification>
The Volume Use Duration directive defines the time period that the Volume can be written beginning from the time of first data write to the Volume. If the time-period specified is zero (the default), the Volume can be written indefinitely. Otherwise, the next time a job runs that wants to access this Volume, and the time period from the first write to the volume (the first Job written) exceeds the time-period-specification, the Volume will be marked Used, which means that no more Jobs can be appended to the Volume, but it may be recycled if recycling is enabled. Using the command status dir applies algorithms similar to running jobs, so during such a command, the Volume status may also be changed. Once the Volume is recycled, it will be available for use again.

You might use this directive, for example, if you have a Volume used for Incremental backups, and Volumes used for Weekly Full backups. Once the Full backup is done, you will want to use a different Incremental Volume. This can be accomplished by setting the Volume Use Duration for the Incremental Volume to six days. I.e. it will be used for the 6 days following a Full save, then a different Incremental volume will be used. Be careful about setting the duration to short periods such as 23 hours, or you might experience problems of Bacula waiting for a tape over the weekend only to complete the backups Monday morning when an operator mounts a new tape.

The use duration is checked and the Used status is set only at the end of a job that writes to the particular volume, which means that even though the use duration may have expired, the catalog entry will not be updated until the next job that uses this volume is run.

Please note that the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update volume command in the Console.

Catalog Files = <yes|no>
This directive defines whether or not you want the names of the files that were saved to be put into the catalog. The default is yes. The advantage of specifying Catalog Files = No is that you will have a significantly smaller Catalog database. The disadvantage is that you will not be able to produce a Catalog listing of the files backed up for each Job (this is often called Browsing). Also, without the File entries in the catalog, you will not be able to use the Console restore command nor any other command that references File entries.

AutoPrune = <yes|no>
If AutoPrune is set to yes (default), Bacula (version 1.20 or greater) will automatically apply the Volume Retention period when new Volume is needed and no appendable Volumes exist in the Pool. Volume pruning causes expired Jobs (older than the Volume Retention period) to be deleted from the Catalog and permits possible recycling of the Volume.

Volume Retention = <time-period-specification>
The Volume Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep Job records associated with the Volume in the Catalog database. When this time period expires, and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula may prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified Volume Retention period if it is necessary to free up a Volume. Recycling will not occur until it is absolutely necessary to free up a volume. All File records associated with pruned Jobs are also pruned. The time may be specified as seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, or years. The Volume Retention is applied independently of the Job Retention and the File Retention periods defined in the Client resource. This means that all the retentions periods are applied in turn and that the shorter period is the one that effectively takes precedence. Note, that when the Volume Retention period has been reached, and it is necessary to obtain a new volume, Bacula will prune both the Job and the File records. This pruning could also occur during a status dir command because it uses similar algorithms for finding the next available Volume.

It is important to know that when the Volume Retention period expires, Bacula does not automatically recycle a Volume. It attempts to keep the Volume data intact as long as possible before over writing the Volume.

The default Volume retention period is 365 days. Note, this directive sets the default value for each Volume entry in the Catalog when the Volume is created. The value in the catalog may be later individually changed for each Volume using the Console program.

By defining multiple Pools with different Volume Retention periods, you may effectively have a set of tapes that is recycled weekly, another Pool of tapes that is recycled monthly and so on. However, one must keep in mind that if your Volume Retention period is too short, it may prune the last valid Full backup, and hence until the next Full backup is done, you will not have a complete backup of your system, and in addition, the next Incremental or Differential backup will be promoted to a Full backup. As a consequence, the minimum Volume Retention period should be at twice the interval of your Full backups. This means that if you do a Full backup once a month, the minimum Volume retention period should be two months.

Please note that the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console.

Recycle = <yes|no>
This directive specifies whether or not Purged Volumes may be recycled. If it is set to yes (default) and Bacula needs a volume but finds none that are appendable, it will search for and recycle (reuse) Purged Volumes (i.e. volumes with all the Jobs and Files expired and thus deleted from the Catalog). If the Volume is recycled, all previous data written to that Volume will be overwritten. If Recycle is set to no, the Volume will not be recycled, and hence, the data will remain valid. If you want to reuse (re-write) the Volume, and the recycle flag is no (0 in the catalog), you may manually set the recycle flag (update command) for a Volume to be reused.

Please note that the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console.

Recycle Oldest Volume = <yes|no>
This directive instructs the Director to search for the oldest used Volume in the Pool when another Volume is requested by the Storage daemon and none are available. The catalog is then pruned respecting the retention periods of all Files and Jobs written to this Volume. If all Jobs are pruned (i.e. the volume is Purged), then the Volume is recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written. This directive respects any Job, File, or Volume retention periods that you may have specified, and as such it is much better to use this directive than the Purge Oldest Volume.

This directive can be useful if you have a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool and you want to cycle through them and you have specified the correct retention periods.

However, if you use this directive and have only one Volume in the Pool, you will immediately recycle your Volume if you fill it and Bacula needs another one. Thus your backup will be totally invalid. Please use this directive with care. The default is no.

Recycle Current Volume = <yes|no>
If Bacula needs a new Volume, this directive instructs Bacula to Prune the volume respecting the Job and File retention periods. If all Jobs are pruned (i.e. the volume is Purged), then the Volume is recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written. This directive respects any Job, File, or Volume retention periods that you may have specified, and thus it is much better to use it rather than the Purge Oldest Volume directive.

This directive can be useful if you have: a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool, you want to cycle through them, and you have specified retention periods that prune Volumes before you have cycled through the Volume in the Pool.

However, if you use this directive and have only one Volume in the Pool, you will immediately recycle your Volume if you fill it and Bacula needs another one. Thus your backup will be totally invalid. Please use this directive with care. The default is no.

Purge Oldest Volume = <yes|no>
This directive instructs the Director to search for the oldest used Volume in the Pool when another Volume is requested by the Storage daemon and none are available. The catalog is then purged irrespective of retention periods of all Files and Jobs written to this Volume. The Volume is then recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written. This directive overrides any Job, File, or Volume retention periods that you may have specified.

This directive can be useful if you have a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool and you want to cycle through them and reusing the oldest one when all Volumes are full, but you don't want to worry about setting proper retention periods. However, by using this option you risk losing valuable data.

Please be aware that Purge Oldest Volume disregards all retention periods. If you have only a single Volume defined and you turn this variable on, that Volume will always be immediately overwritten when it fills! So at a minimum, ensure that you have a decent number of Volumes in your Pool before running any jobs. If you want retention periods to apply do not use this directive. To specify a retention period, use the Volume Retention directive (see above).

We highly recommend against using this directive, because it is sure that some day, Bacula will recycle a Volume that contains current data. The default is no.

Cleaning Prefix = <string>
This directive defines a prefix string, which if it matches the beginning of a Volume name during labeling of a Volume, the Volume will be defined with the VolStatus set to Cleaning and thus Bacula will never attempt to use this tape. This is primarily for use with autochangers that accept barcodes where the convention is that barcodes beginning with CLN are treated as cleaning tapes.

Label Format = <format>
This directive specifies the format of the labels contained in this pool. The format directive is used as a sort of template to create new Volume names during automatic Volume labeling.

The format should be specified in double quotes, and consists of letters, numbers and the special characters hyphen (-), underscore (_), colon (:), and period (.), which are the legal characters for a Volume name. The format should be enclosed in double quotes (").

In addition, the format may contain a number of variable expansion characters which will be expanded by a complex algorithm allowing you to create Volume names of many different formats. In all cases, the expansion process must resolve to the set of characters noted above that are legal Volume names. Generally, these variable expansion characters begin with a dollar sign ($) or a left bracket ([). If you specify variable expansion characters, you should always enclose the format with double quote characters ("). For more details on variable expansion, please see the Variable Expansion Chapter of this manual.

If no variable expansion characters are found in the string, the Volume name will be formed from the format string appended with the number of volumes in the pool plus one, which will be edited as four digits with leading zeros. For example, with a Label Format = "File-", the first volumes will be named File-0001, File-0002, ...

With the exception of Job specific variables, you can test your LabelFormat by using the var command the Console Chapter of this manual.

In almost all cases, you should enclose the format specification (part after the equal sign) in double quotes. Please note that this directive is deprecated and is replaced in version 1.37 and greater with a Python script for creating volume names.

In order for a Pool to be used during a Backup Job, the Pool must have at least one Volume associated with it. Volumes are created for a Pool using the label or the add commands in the Bacula Console, program. In addition to adding Volumes to the Pool (i.e. putting the Volume names in the Catalog database), the physical Volume must be labeled with a valid Bacula software volume label before Bacula will accept the Volume. This will be automatically done if you use the label command. Bacula can automatically label Volumes if instructed to do so, but this feature is not yet fully implemented.

The following is an example of a valid Pool resource definition:

 
Pool {
  Name = Default
  Pool Type = Backup
}

The Scratch Pool

In general, you can give your Pools any name you wish, but there is one important restriction: the Pool named Scratch, if it exists behaves like a scratch pool of Volumes in that when Bacula needs a new Volume for writing and it cannot find one, it will look in the Scratch pool, and if it finds an available Volume, it will move it out of the Scratch pool into the Pool currently being used by the job.


The Catalog Resource

The Catalog Resource defines what catalog to use for the current job. Currently, Bacula can only handle a single database server (SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL) that is defined when configuring Bacula. However, there may be as many Catalogs (databases) defined as you wish. For example, you may want each Client to have its own Catalog database, or you may want backup jobs to use one database and verify or restore jobs to use another database.

Catalog
Start of the Catalog resource. At least one Catalog resource must be defined.

Name = <name>
The name of the Catalog. No necessary relation to the database server name. This name will be specified in the Client resource directive indicating that all catalog data for that Client is maintained in this Catalog. This directive is required.

password = <password>
This specifies the password to use when logging into the database. This directive is required.

DB Name = <name>
This specifies the name of the database. If you use multiple catalogs (databases), you specify which one here. If you are using an external database server rather than the internal one, you must specify a name that is known to the server (i.e. you explicitly created the Bacula tables using this name. This directive is required.

user = <user>
This specifies what user name to use to log into the database. This directive is required.

DB Socket = <socket-name>
This is the name of a socket to use on the local host to connect to the database. This directive is used only by MySQL and is ignored by SQLite. Normally, if neither DB Socket or DB Address are specified, MySQL will use the default socket.

DB Address = <address>
This is the host address of the database server. Normally, you would specify this instead of DB Socket if the database server is on another machine. In that case, you will also specify DB Port. This directive is used only by MySQL and is ignored by SQLite if provided. This directive is optional.

DB Port = <port>
This defines the port to be used in conjunction with DB Address to access the database if it is on another machine. This directive is used only by MySQL and is ignored by SQLite if provided. This directive is optional.

the different

The following is an example of a valid Catalog resource definition:

Catalog
{
  Name = SQLite
  dbname = bacula;
  user = bacula;
  password = ""                       # no password = no security
}

or for a Catalog on another machine:

Catalog
{
  Name = MySQL
  dbname = bacula
  user = bacula
  password = ""
  DB Address = remote.acme.com
  DB Port = 1234
}


The Messages Resource

For the details of the Messages Resource, please see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual.


The Console Resource

As of Bacula version 1.33 and higher, there are three different kinds of consoles, which the administrator or user can use to interact with the Director. These three kinds of consoles comprise three different security levels.

The Console resource is optional and need not be specified. The following directives are permitted within the Director's configuration resource:

Name = <name>
The name of the console. This name must match the name specified in the Console's configuration resource (much as is the case with Client definitions).

Password = <password>
Specifies the password that must be supplied for a named Bacula Console to be authorized. The same password must appear in the Console resource of the Console configuration file. For added security, the password is never actually passed across the network but rather a challenge response hash code created with the password. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process, otherwise it will be left blank.

JobACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of Job resource names that can be accessed by the console. Without this directive, the console cannot access any of the Director's Job resources. Multiple Job resource names may be specified by separating them with commas, and/or by specifying multiple JobACL directives. For example, the directive may be specified as:

    JobACL = kernsave, "Backup client 1", "Backup client 2"
    JobACL = "RestoreFiles"

With the above specification, the console can access the Director's resources for the four jobs named on the JobACL directives, but for no others.

ClientACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of Client resource names that can be accessed by the console.

StorageACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of Storage resource names that can be accessed by the console.

ScheduleACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of Schedule resource names that can be accessed by the console.

PoolACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of Pool resource names that can be accessed by the console.

FileSetACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of FileSet resource names that can be accessed by the console.

CatalogACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of Catalog resource names that can be accessed by the console.

CommandACL = <name-list>
This directive is used to specify a list of of console commands that can be executed by the console.

Aside from Director resource names and console command names, the special keyword *all* can be specified in any of the above access control lists. When this keyword is present, any resource or command name (which ever is appropriate) will be accepted. For an example configuration file, please see the Console Configuration chapter of this manual.


The Counter Resource

The Counter Resource defines a counter variable that can be accessed by variable expansion used for creating Volume labels with the LabelFormat directive. See the LabelFormat directive in this chapter for more details.

Counter
Start of the Counter resource. Counter directives are optional.

Name = <name>
The name of the Counter. This is the name you will use in the variable expansion to reference the counter value.

Minimum = <integer>
This specifies the minimum value that the counter can have. It also becomes the default. If not supplied, zero is assumed.

Maximum = <integer>
This is the maximum value value that the counter can have. If not specified or set to zero, the counter can have a maximum value of 2,147,483,648 (2 to the 31 power). When the counter is incremented past this value, it is reset to the Minimum.

*WrapCounter = <counter-name>
If this value is specified, when the counter is incremented past the maximum and thus reset to the minimum, the counter specified on the WrapCounter is incremented. (This is not currently implemented).

Catalog = <catalog-name>
If this directive is specified, the counter and its values will be saved in the specified catalog. If this directive is not present, the counter will be redefined each time that Bacula is started.


Example Director Configuration File

An example Director configuration file might be the following:

#
# Default Bacula Director Configuration file
#
#  The only thing that MUST be changed is to add one or more
#   file or directory names in the Include directive of the
#   FileSet resource.
#
#  For Bacula release 1.15 (5 March 2002) -- redhat
#
#  You might also want to change the default email address
#   from root to your address.  See the "mail" and "operator"
#   directives in the Messages resource.
#
Director {                            # define myself
  Name = rufus-dir
  QueryFile = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/query.sql"
  WorkingDirectory = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/working"
  PidDirectory = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/working"
  Password = "XkSfzu/Cf/wX4L8Zh4G4/yhCbpLcz3YVdmVoQvU3EyF/"
}
# Define the backup Job
Job {
  Name = "NightlySave"
  Type = Backup
  Level = Incremental                 # default
  Client=rufus-fd
  FileSet="Full Set"
  Schedule = "WeeklyCycle"
  Storage = DLTDrive
  Messages = Standard
  Pool = Default
}
Job {
  Name = "Restore"
  Type = Restore
  Client=rufus-fd
  FileSet="Full Set"
  Where = /tmp/bacula-restores
  Storage = DLTDrive
  Messages = Standard
  Pool = Default
}
   
# List of files to be backed up
FileSet {
  Name = "Full Set"
  Include {
    Options { signature=SHA1}
#
#  Put your list of files here, one per line or include an
#    external list with:
#
#    @file-name
#
#  Note: / backs up everything
  File = /
}
  Exclude {}
}
# When to do the backups
Schedule {
  Name = "WeeklyCycle"
  Run = Full sun at 1:05
  Run = Incremental mon-sat at 1:05
}
# Client (File Services) to backup
Client {
  Name = rufus-fd
  Address = rufus
  Catalog = MyCatalog
  Password = "MQk6lVinz4GG2hdIZk1dsKE/LxMZGo6znMHiD7t7vzF+"
  File Retention = 60d      # sixty day file retention
  Job Retention = 1y        # 1 year Job retention
  AutoPrune = yes           # Auto apply retention periods
}
# Definition of DLT tape storage device
Storage {
  Name = DLTDrive
  Address = rufus
  Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
  Device = "HP DLT 80"      # same as Device in Storage daemon
  Media Type = DLT8000      # same as MediaType in Storage daemon
}
# Definition for a DLT autochanger device
Storage {
  Name = Autochanger
  Address = rufus
  Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
  Device = "Autochanger"    # same as Device in Storage daemon
  Media Type = DLT-8000     # Different from DLTDrive
  Autochanger = yes
}
# Definition of DDS tape storage device
Storage {
  Name = SDT-10000
  Address = rufus
  Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
  Device = SDT-10000        # same as Device in Storage daemon
  Media Type = DDS-4        # same as MediaType in Storage daemon
}
# Definition of 8mm tape storage device
Storage {
  Name = "8mmDrive"
  Address = rufus
  Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
  Device = "Exabyte 8mm"
  MediaType = "8mm"
}
# Definition of file storage device
Storage {
  Name = File
  Address = rufus
  Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
  Device = FileStorage
  Media Type = File
}
# Generic catalog service
Catalog {
  Name = MyCatalog
  dbname = bacula; user = bacula; password = ""
}
# Reasonable message delivery -- send most everything to
#   the email address and to the console
Messages {
  Name = Standard
  mail = root@localhost = all, !skipped, !terminate
  operator = root@localhost = mount
  console = all, !skipped, !saved
}
    
# Default pool definition
Pool {
  Name = Default
  Pool Type = Backup
  AutoPrune = yes
  Recycle = yes
}
#
# Restricted console used by tray-monitor to get the status of the director
#
Console {
  Name = Monitor
  Password = "GN0uRo7PTUmlMbqrJ2Gr1p0fk0HQJTxwnFyE4WSST3MWZseR"
  CommandACL = status, .status
}


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Next: Client/File daemon Configuration Up: Bacula User's Guide Previous: Customizing the Configuration Files   Contents   Index
Kern Sibbald 2006-07-30