<< Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

Chapter 2. Amanda Installation Notes

James da Silva

Original text
AMANDA Core Team

Stefan G. Weichinger

XML-conversion, Updates
AMANDA Core Team

Table of Contents

Before doing anything
Compiling the Amanda sources
Setting up your Amanda Configuration
Setting up the Tape Server Host
Set up the Backup Client Hosts

Note

Refer to http://www.amanda.org/docs/install.html for the current version of this document.

This document covers the compilation, installation, and runtime setup of Amanda 2.4.2 and higher.

Before doing anything

  • Read this document all the way through.

  • Consult Amanda 2.4.x - System-Specific Installation Notes for installation notes specific to particular operating systems. There is often important information there, so don't forget this step.

  • Read Upgrade Issues if you are upgrading from a previous Amanda version. There are some issues that you will need to be aware of.

  • If you are using KERBEROS authentication, read Kerberos for details on installing and running the kerberized version of Amanda.

  • Check the Amanda Patches Page, http://www.amanda.org/patches/.

Compiling the Amanda sources

If you have multiple architectures, you only need to install the whole Amanda package on the tape server host (the one with tape drive). On the backup client hosts (the ones you are going to dump), you only need to compile some of the Amanda programs (see section Set up the Backup Client Hosts below).

Source configuration

  • Amanda can optionally make use of the following packages to back up different types of clients or clients with different filesystem dumping programs.

  • Read about the different configuration options available for building and running Amanda. To see the options, do both:

    • Run ./configure --help to see the available options that configure takes.

    • Read the file example/config.site which gives longer descriptions to the same options.

  • Choose which user and group you will run the dumps under. Common choices for user are `bin' or another user specifically created for Amanda, such as `amanda'; common choices for group are `operator' or `disk'. If you do not specify --with-user=<username> and --with-group=<groupname>, configure will abort. Also choose the default name for your configuration, such as `csd' or `DailySet1'). This name is used by the Amanda commands to choose one of multiple possible configurations. You may specify it using the --with-config=<confgname>.

  • Decide where Amanda will live. You need to choose a root directory for Amanda. Let this root directory be called $prefix. Unless you change the default behavior with the appropriate command line options, Amanda will install itself as. Listed below you find the appropriate configure-option for each directory to change the location of this part of Amanda.

    --sbindir=$prefix/sbin					Amanda server side programs
    --libexecdir=$prefix/libexec				Amanda backup client programs
    --libdir=$prefix/lib					Amanda dynamic libraries
    --with-configdir=$prefix/etc/amanda			Runtime configuration files
    --with-gnutar-listdir=$prefix/var/amanda/gnutar-lists	Directory for GNU-tar lists (client)
    --mandir=$prefix/man					Directory for manual pages

    Note that the GNU-tar listdir should be a local filesystem on each client that is going to be backed up with GNU-tar. If it really must be NFS-mounted, make sure the filesystem is exported so that the client has root access to it.

  • Decide if you are compiling Amanda on a server only or a client only platform. If you have a particular operating system that will only be a Amanda client and will never run as the master tape host, then add the --without-server option to configure. In the unlikely case that you have a particular operating system that will serve as the tape host and you do not wish to back up any machines that run this operating system, add the --without-client option to the configure options. There are many other configuration switches for Amanda. You may learn more about them by running configure --help and by reading examples/config.site.

  • Now configure Amanda. There are two ways of doing this. If you are running Amanda on a single OS, then probably the first method works better for you. If you need to support multiple platforms, then the second method will work better.

    • Run configure as non-root-user with the appropriate command line options. You will probably want to remember the command line options for future builds of Amanda.

    • Edit examples/config.site and install it in the directory $prefix/etc or $prefix/share. When configure runs the next time it will look for this file and use it to configure Amanda.

Building and installing the binaries

  • Back at the top-level source directory, build the sources:

    make
    su root; make install
    

    Make sure that you don't build the software as root, you may run the first make-command as the Amanda-user, for example. On the other hand you have to run make install as root to get the binaries installed with the proper permissions. If you want to change the compiler flags, you can do so like this:

    make CFLAGS="-O3 -Wall"

  • If you have built with USE_VERSION_SUFFIXES, you will want to create symlinks to the version you wish to use, eg: ln -s amdump-x.y.z amdump This is not done automatically by the install process, so that you can have multiple Amanda versions co-existing, and choose yourself which to make the default version. The script contrib/set_prod_link.pl may save you some keystrokes.

  • Run ldconfig as root to update the paths to the recently installed shared libraries.

Setting up your Amanda Configuration

Setting up the Tape Server Host

  • Create the config directory (eg. /usr/local/etc/amanda/confname) and copy the example/ files into that directory. Edit these files to be correct for your site, consulting the amanda(8) man page if necessary. You can also send mail to mailto://amanda-users@amanda.org if you are having trouble deciding how to set things up. You will also need to create the directory for the log and database files for the configuration to use (eg /usr/local/var/amanda/confname), and the work directory on the holding disk. These directories need to agree with the parameters in amanda.conf. Don't forget to make all these directories writable by the dump user!

    Make sure that you specify the *no-rewind* version of the tape device in your amanda.conf file. This is a frequently encountered problem for new sites.

    Note that you might want to temporarily set the option "no-record" in all your dumptypes when first installing Amanda if you'd like to run tests of Amanda in parallel with your existing dump scheme. Amanda will then run but will not interfere with your current dumpdates. However, you don't want to run with "no-record" under normal operations.

  • Put Amanda into your crontab. Here's a sample:

    Example 2.1. /etc/crontab

    0 16 * * 1-5 /usr/local/sbin/amcheck -m confname
    45 0 * * 2-6 /usr/local/sbin/amdump confname
    

    This is for SunOS 4.x, which has a per-user crontab; most other systems also require a userid on each cron line. See your cron(8) for details. With these cron lines, Amanda will check that the correct tape is in the drive every weekday afternoon at 4pm (if it isn't, all the operators will get mail). At 12:45am that night the dumps will be run.

  • Put the Amanda services into your /etc/services file. Add entries like:

    Example 2.2. /etc/services

    amanda		10080/udp
    amandaidx	10082/tcp
    amidxtape	10083/tcp

    You may choose a different port number if you like, but it must match that in the services file on the client hosts too.

    If you are running NIS (aka YP), you have to enter the Amanda service into your NIS services database. Consult your NIS documentation for details.

    You may use the `patch-system' script, from client-src, in order to modify this file. Run it with a `-h' argument for usage.

  • If you are going to use the indexing capabilities of Amanda, follow one of the following steps:

    • If your server uses inetd, then add these lines to your inetd.conf on the tape server host:

      Example 2.3. /etc/inetd.conf

      	amandaidx stream tcp nowait $USER $AMINDEXD_PATH amindexd
      	amidxtape stream tcp nowait $USER $AMIDXTAPED_PATH amidxtaped

      where $AMINDEXD_PATH and $AMIDXTAPED_PATH are the complete paths to where the amindexd and amidxtaped executables (usually libexec_dir/amindexd and libexec_dir/amidxtaped), and USER is the Amanda user.

      You may use the `patch-system' script, from client-src, in order to modify this file. Run it with a `-h' argument for usage.

    • If your tape server uses xinetd instead of inetd, then you have to add the following two files to your xinetd-configuration (usually /etc/xinetd.d) and edit the paths:

      Example 2.4. /etc/xinetd.d/amandaidx

      	service amandaidx
      {
      	socket_type		= stream
      		protocol		= tcp
      		wait			= no
      		user			= $USER
      		group			= $GROUP
      		groups 			= yes
      		server			= $AMINDEXD_PATH/amindexd } 

      Example 2.5. /etc/xinetd.d/amidxtape

      service amidxtape
      {
      	socket_type		= stream
      		protocol		= tcp
      		wait			= no
      		user			= $USER
      		group			= $GROUP
      		groups 			= yes
      		server			= $AMIDXTAPED_PATH/amidxtaped } 
    • If your tape server uses Dan Bernstein's daemontools http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html) instead of (x)inetd, you have to create amandaidx and amidxtape services by hand.

      • Create service directories:

        mkdir -p $prefix/etc/amanda/supervise/amandaidx
        mkdir -p $prefix/etc/amanda/supervise/amidxtape

      • Create service startup files and make them executable:

        Example 2.6. /etc/amanda/supervise/amandaidx/run

        #!/bin/sh
        exec /usr/local/bin/setuidgid amanda \
        /usr/local/bin/tcpserver -DHRl0 0 10082 \
        /usr/local/libexec/amindexd >/dev/null 2>/dev/null
        

        Example 2.7. /etc/amanda/supervise/amidxtape/run

        #!/bin/sh
        exec /usr/local/bin/setuidgid amanda \
        /usr/local/bin/tcpserver -DHRl0 0 10083 \
        /usr/local/libexec/amidxtaped >/dev/null 2>/dev/null
        
      • Link service directories into your svscan directory:

        cd /service
        ln -s $prefix/etc/amanda/supervise/amandaidx .
        ln -s $prefix/etc/amanda/supervise/amidxtape .
  • If the tape server host is itself going to be backed up (as is usually the case), you must also follow the client-side install instructions below on the server host, INCLUDING setting up the file .amandahosts so that the server host lets itself in. This is a frequently encountered problem for new sites.

Set up the Backup Client Hosts

  • When using BSD-style security (enabled by default), set up your ~dumpuser/.amandahosts (or ~dumpuser/.rhosts and/or /etc/hosts.equiv, if you have configured --without-amandahosts) so that the dumpuser is allowed in from the server host. Only canonical host names will be accepted in .amandahosts, and usernames must be present in every line, because this is safer.

  • Set up your raw disk devices so that the dumpuser can read them, and /etc/dumpdates so that the dumpuser can write to it. Normally this is done by making the disk devices readable by (and dumpdates read/writable by) group `operator', and putting the dumpuser into that group.

  • Put the Amanda service into your /etc/services file. Add entry like:

    Example 2.8. /etc/services

    amanda		10080/udp
    amandaidx	10082/tcp
    amidxtape	10083/tcp
    

    You may choose a different port number if you like, but it must match that in the services file on the tape server host too.

    If you are running NIS (aka YP), you have to enter the Amanda service into your NIS services database. Consult your NIS documentation for details.

    You may use the `patch-system' script, from client-src, in order to modify this file. Run it with a `-h' argument for usage.

  • Follow one of the following steps to set up the Amanda client service:

    • If your Amanda client uses inetd, put the Amanda client service into inetd's config file. This file is usually found in /etc/inetd.conf, but on older systems it is /etc/servers. The format is different on different OSes, so you must consult the inetd man page for your site. Here is an example from our site, again from SunOS 4.x:

      Example 2.9. /etc/inetd.conf

      amanda dgram udp wait USER AMANDAD_PATH amandad

      You may use the `patch-system' script, from client-src, in order to modify this file. Run it with a `-h' argument for usage.

    • If your Amanda client uses xinetd, you have to add the following file to your xinetd-configuration (usually /etc/xinetd.d) and edit it to reflect your settings and paths:

      Example 2.10. /etc/xinetd.d/amanda

      service amanda
      {
      socket_type		= dgram
      protocol		= udp
      wait			= yes
      user			= $USER
      group			= $GROUP
      groups 			= yes
      server			= $AMANDAD_PATH/amandad 
      }
    • If your Amanda client uses Dan Bernstein's daemontools (http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html) instead of (x)inetd, you have to create the amanda service by hand. You will need also an UDP super-server (netcat in this example).

      • Create service directory:

        mkdir -p /etc/amanda/supervise/amanda
        
      • Create service startup file and make it executable:

        Example 2.11. /etc/amanda/supervise/amanda/run

        #!/bin/sh
        exec /usr/local/bin/setuidgid amanda \
          /usr/bin/netcat -l -u -p 10080 -q 0 \
          -e /usr/local/libexec/amandad >/dev/null 2>/dev/null 

        Note

        The netcat-binary used in this run-file might also be called /usr/bin/nc on your system, depending on the OS-distribution you use. Refer to http://netcat.sourceforge.net for details of netcat.

      • Link service directory into your svscan directory:

        cd /service
        ln -s /etc/amanda/supervise/amanda .

  • If you are using (x)inetd, kick inetd/xinetd to make it read its config file. On most systems you can just execute kill -HUP inetd (or xinetd). On older systems you may have to kill it completely and restart it. Note that killing/restarting (x)inetd is not safe to do unless you are sure that no (x)inetd services (like rlogin) are currently in use, otherwise (x)inetd will not be able to bind that port and that service will be unavailable.

    If you are using the daemontools, svscan should detect and start your new services automatically.

  • If you intend to back up xfs filesystems on hosts running IRIX, you must create the directory /var/xfsdump/inventory, otherwise xfsdump will not work.

THAT'S IT! YOU ARE READY TO RUN, UNLESS WE FORGOT SOMETHING.

Please send mail to mailto://amanda-users@amanda.org if you have any comments or questions. We're not afraid of negative reviews, so let us have it!

Before writing questions, you may prefer to take a look at the Amanda FAQ and at the Amanda home page, at http://www.amanda.org. Browsable archives of Amanda mailing-lists are available at http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=amanda-users and http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=amanda-hackers.