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37. 附录甲 ANSI/ISO SQL 1992 语法

这文档中包括这语言的 BNF 以深度为先的树状模扫 (depth-first tree traversal),大约在 27-AUG-1992 11:03:41.64 完成。这个特定版本所用的 BNF 是只用 ANSI 和 SQL2 的。



<SQL terminal character> ::=
      <SQL language character>
    | <SQL embedded language character>

<SQL language character> ::=
      <simple Latin letter>
    | <digit>
    | <SQL special character>

<simple Latin letter> ::=
      <simple Latin upper case letter>
    | <simple Latin lower case letter>

<simple Latin upper case letter> ::=
          A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O
    | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

<simple Latin lower case letter> ::=
          a | b | c | d | e | f | g | h | i | j | k | l | m | n | o
    | p | q | r | s | t | u | v | w | x | y | z

<digit> ::=
    0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

<SQL special character> ::=
      <space>
    | <double quote>
    | <percent>
    | <ampersand>
    | <quote>
    | <left paren>
    | <right paren>
    | <asterisk>
    | <plus sign>
    | <comma>
    | <minus sign>
    | <period>
    | <solidus>
    | <colon>
    | <semicolon>
    | <less than operator>
    | <equals operator>
    | <greater than operator>
    | <question mark>
    | <underscore>
    | <vertical bar>

<space> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(使用中的字集所用的空白字元)

<double quote> ::= "

<percent> ::= %

<ampersand> ::= &

<quote> ::= '

<left paren> ::= (

<right paren> ::= )

<asterisk> ::= *

<plus sign> ::= +

<comma> ::= ,

<minus sign> ::= -

<period> ::= .

<solidus> ::= /

<colon> ::= :

<semicolon> ::= ;

<less than operator> ::= <

<equals operator> ::= =

<greater than operator> ::= >

<question mark> ::= ?

<underscore> ::= _

<vertical bar> ::= |

<SQL embedded language character> ::=
      <left bracket>
    | <right bracket>

<left bracket> ::= [

<right bracket> ::= ]

<token> ::=
      <nondelimiter token>
    | <delimiter token>

<nondelimiter token> ::=
      <regular identifier>
    | <key word>
    | <unsigned numeric literal>
    | <national character string literal>
    | <bit string literal>
    | <hex string literal>

<regular identifier> ::= <identifier body>

<identifier body> ::=
    <identifier start> [ ( <underscore> | <identifier part> )... ]

<identifier start> ::= <EMPHASIS>(!! 参看文法规则)

<identifier part> ::=
      <identifier start>
    | <digit>

<key word> ::=
      <reserved word>
    | <non-reserved word>

<reserved word> ::=
      ABSOLUTE | ACTION | ADD | ALL
    | ALLOCATE | ALTER | AND
    | ANY | ARE
    | AS | ASC
    | ASSERTION | AT
    | AUTHORIZATION | AVG
    | BEGIN | BETWEEN | BIT | BIT_LENGTH
    | BOTH | BY
    | CASCADE | CASCADED | CASE | CAST
    | CATALOG
    | CHAR | CHARACTER | CHAR_LENGTH
    | CHARACTER_LENGTH | CHECK | CLOSE | COALESCE
    | COLLATE | COLLATION
    | COLUMN | COMMIT
    | CONNECT
    | CONNECTION | CONSTRAINT
    | CONSTRAINTS | CONTINUE
    | CONVERT | CORRESPONDING | COUNT | CREATE | CROSS
    | CURRENT
    | CURRENT_DATE | CURRENT_TIME
    | CURRENT_TIMESTAMP | CURRENT_USER | CURSOR
    | DATE | DAY | DEALLOCATE | DEC
    | DECIMAL | DECLARE | DEFAULT | DEFERRABLE
    | DEFERRED | DELETE | DESC | DESCRIBE | DESCRIPTOR
    | DIAGNOSTICS
    | DISCONNECT | DISTINCT | DOMAIN | DOUBLE | DROP
    | ELSE | END | END-EXEC | ESCAPE
    | EXCEPT | EXCEPTION
    | EXEC | EXECUTE | EXISTS
    | EXTERNAL | EXTRACT
    | FALSE | FETCH | FIRST | FLOAT | FOR
    | FOREIGN | FOUND | FROM | FULL
    | GET | GLOBAL | GO | GOTO
    | GRANT | GROUP
    | HAVING | HOUR
    | IDENTITY | IMMEDIATE | IN | INDICATOR
    | INITIALLY | INNER | INPUT
    | INSENSITIVE | INSERT | INT | INTEGER | INTERSECT
    | INTERVAL | INTO | IS
    | ISOLATION
    | JOIN
    | KEY
    | LANGUAGE | LAST | LEADING | LEFT
    | LEVEL | LIKE | LOCAL | LOWER
    | MATCH | MAX | MIN | MINUTE | MODULE
    | MONTH
    | NAMES | NATIONAL | NATURAL | NCHAR | NEXT | NO
    | NOT | NULL
    | NULLIF | NUMERIC
    | OCTET_LENGTH | OF
    | ON | ONLY | OPEN | OPTION | OR
    | ORDER | OUTER
    | OUTPUT | OVERLAPS
    | PAD | PARTIAL | POSITION | PRECISION | PREPARE
    | PRESERVE | PRIMARY
    | PRIOR | PRIVILEGES | PROCEDURE | PUBLIC
    | READ | REAL | REFERENCES | RELATIVE | RESTRICT
    | REVOKE | RIGHT
    | ROLLBACK | ROWS
    | SCHEMA | SCROLL | SECOND | SECTION
    | SELECT
    | SESSION | SESSION_USER | SET
    | SIZE | SMALLINT | SOME | SPACE | SQL | SQLCODE
    | SQLERROR | SQLSTATE
    | SUBSTRING | SUM | SYSTEM_USER
    | TABLE | TEMPORARY
    | THEN | TIME | TIMESTAMP
    | TIMEZONE_HOUR | TIMEZONE_MINUTE
    | TO | TRAILING | TRANSACTION
    | TRANSLATE | TRANSLATION | TRIM | TRUE
    | UNION | UNIQUE | UNKNOWN | UPDATE | UPPER | USAGE
    | USER | USING
    | VALUE | VALUES | VARCHAR | VARYING | VIEW
    | WHEN | WHENEVER | WHERE | WITH | WORK | WRITE
    | YEAR
    | ZONE

<non-reserved word> ::=

      ADA
    | C | CATALOG_NAME
    | CHARACTER_SET_CATALOG | CHARACTER_SET_NAME
    | CHARACTER_SET_SCHEMA | CLASS_ORIGIN | COBOL | COLLATION_CATALOG
    | COLLATION_NAME | COLLATION_SCHEMA | COLUMN_NAME | COMMAND_FUNCTION
    | COMMITTED
    | CONDITION_NUMBER | CONNECTION_NAME | CONSTRAINT_CATALOG | CONSTRAINT_NAME
    | CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA | CURSOR_NAME
    | DATA | DATETIME_INTERVAL_CODE
    | DATETIME_INTERVAL_PRECISION | DYNAMIC_FUNCTION
    | FORTRAN
    | LENGTH
    | MESSAGE_LENGTH | MESSAGE_OCTET_LENGTH | MESSAGE_TEXT | MORE | MUMPS
    | NAME | NULLABLE | NUMBER
    | PASCAL | PLI
    | REPEATABLE | RETURNED_LENGTH | RETURNED_OCTET_LENGTH | RETURNED_SQLSTATE
    | ROW_COUNT
    | SCALE | SCHEMA_NAME | SERIALIZABLE | SERVER_NAME | SUBCLASS_ORIGIN
    | TABLE_NAME | TYPE
    | UNCOMMITTED | UNNAMED

<unsigned numeric literal> ::=
      <exact numeric literal>
    | <approximate numeric literal>

<exact numeric literal> ::=
      <unsigned integer> [ <period> [ <unsigned integer> ] ]
    | <period> <unsigned integer>

<unsigned integer> ::= <digit>...

<approximate numeric literal> ::= <mantissa> E <exponent>

<mantissa> ::= <exact numeric literal>

<exponent> ::= <signed integer>

<signed integer> ::= [ <sign> ] <unsigned integer>

<sign> ::= <plus sign> | <minus sign>

<national character string literal> ::=
    N <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote>
      [ ( <separator>... <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote> )... ]

<character representation> ::=
      <nonquote character>
    | <quote symbol>

<nonquote character> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(!! 参看文法规则)
   
<quote symbol> ::= <quote><quote>

<separator> ::= ( <comment> | <space> | <newline> )...

<comment> ::=
    <comment introducer> [ <comment character>... ] <newline>

<comment introducer> ::= <minus sign><minus sign>[<minus sign>...]

<comment character> ::=
      <nonquote character>
    | <quote>

<newline> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(实践方法定义的行末指示)


<bit string literal> ::=
    B <quote> [ <bit>... ] <quote>
      [ ( <separator>... <quote> [ <bit>... ] <quote> )... ]

<bit> ::= 0 | 1

<hex string literal> ::=
    X <quote> [ <hexit>... ] <quote>
      [ ( <separator>... <quote> [ <hexit>... ] <quote> )... ]

<hexit> ::= <digit> | A | B | C | D | E | F | a | b | c | d | e | f

<delimiter token> ::=
      <character string literal>
    | <date string>
    | <time string>
    | <timestamp string>
    | <interval string>
    | <delimited identifier>
    | <SQL special character>
    | <not equals operator>
    | <greater than or equals operator>
    | <less than or equals operator>
    | <concatenation operator>
    | <double period>
    | <left bracket>
    | <right bracket>

<character string literal> ::=
    [ <introducer><character set specification> ]
    <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote>
      [ ( <separator>... <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote> )... ]

<introducer> ::= <underscore>

<character set specification> ::=
      <standard character repertoire name>
    | <implementation-defined character repertoire name>
    | <user-defined character repertoire name>
    | <standard universal character form-of-use name>
    | <implementation-defined universal character form-of-use name>

<standard character repertoire name> ::= <character set name>

<character set name> ::= [ <schema name> <period> ]
      <SQL language identifier>

<schema name> ::=
    [ <catalog name> <period> ] <unqualified schema name>

<catalog name> ::= <identifier>

<identifier> ::=
    [ <introducer><character set specification> ] <actual identifier>

<actual identifier> ::=
      <regular identifier>
    | <delimited identifier>

<delimited identifier> ::=
    <double quote> <delimited identifier body> <double quote>

<delimited identifier body> ::= <delimited identifier part>...

<delimited identifier part> ::=
      <nondoublequote character>
    | <doublequote symbol>

<nondoublequote character> ::= <EMPHASIS>(!! 参看文法规则)

<doublequote symbol> ::= <double quote><double quote>

<unqualified schema name> ::= <identifier>

<SQL language identifier> ::=
    <SQL language identifier start>
       [ ( <underscore> | <SQL language identifier part> )... ]

<SQL language identifier start> ::= <simple Latin letter>

<SQL language identifier part> ::=
      <simple Latin letter>
    | <digit>

<implementation-defined character repertoire name> ::=
    <character set name>

<user-defined character repertoire name> ::= <character set name>

<standard universal character form-of-use name> ::=
    <character set name>

<implementation-defined universal character form-of-use name> ::=
    <character set name>

<date string> ::=
    <quote> <date value> <quote>

<date value> ::=
    <years value> <minus sign> <months value>
        <minus sign> <days value>

<years value> ::= <datetime value>

<datetime value> ::= <unsigned integer>

<months value> ::= <datetime value>

<days value> ::= <datetime value>

<time string> ::=
    <quote> <time value> [ <time zone interval> ] <quote>

<time value> ::=
    <hours value> <colon> <minutes value> <colon> <seconds value>

<hours value> ::= <datetime value>

<minutes value> ::= <datetime value>

<seconds value> ::=
      <seconds integer value> [ <period> [ <seconds fraction> ] ]

<seconds integer value> ::= <unsigned integer>

<seconds fraction> ::= <unsigned integer>

<time zone interval> ::=
    <sign> <hours value> <colon> <minutes value>

<timestamp string> ::=
    <quote> <date value> <space> <time value>
        [ <time zone interval> ] <quote>

<interval string> ::=
    <quote> ( <year-month literal> | <day-time literal> ) <quote>

<year-month literal> ::=
      <years value>
    | [ <years value> <minus sign> ] <months value>

<day-time literal> ::=
      <day-time interval>
    | <time interval>

<day-time interval> ::=
    <days value>
      [ <space> <hours value> [ <colon> <minutes value>
        [ <colon> <seconds value> ] ] ]

<time interval> ::=
      <hours value> [ <colon> <minutes value> [ <colon> <seconds value> ] ]
    | <minutes value> [ <colon> <seconds value> ]
    | <seconds value>

<not equals operator> ::= <>

<greater than or equals operator> ::= >=

<less than or equals operator> ::= <=

<concatenation operator> ::= ||

<double period> ::= ..

<module> ::=
    <module name clause>
    <language clause>
    <module authorization clause>
    [ <temporary table declaration>... ]
    <module contents>...

<module name clause> ::=
    MODULE [ <module name> ]
      [ <module character set specification> ]

<module name> ::= <identifier>

<module character set specification> ::=
    NAMES ARE <character set specification>

<language clause> ::=
    LANGUAGE <language name>

<language name> ::=
    ADA | C | COBOL | FORTRAN | MUMPS | PASCAL | PLI

<module authorization clause> ::=
      SCHEMA <schema name>
    | AUTHORIZATION <module authorization identifier>
    | SCHEMA <schema name>
          AUTHORIZATION <module authorization identifier>

<module authorization identifier> ::=
    <authorization identifier>

<authorization identifier> ::= <identifier>

<temporary table declaration> ::=
    DECLARE LOCAL TEMPORARY TABLE
        <qualified local table name>
      <table element list>
      [ ON COMMIT ( PRESERVE | DELETE ) ROWS ]

<qualified local table name> ::=
    MODULE <period> <local table name>

<local table name> ::= <qualified identifier>

<qualified identifier> ::= <identifier>

<table element list> ::=
      <left paren> <table element> [ ( <comma> <table element> )... ] <right paren>

<table element> ::=
      <column definition>
    | <table constraint definition>

<column definition> ::=
    <column name> ( <data type> | <domain name> )
    [ <default clause> ]
    [ <column constraint definition>... ]
    [ <collate clause> ]

<column name> ::= <identifier>

<data type> ::=
      <character string type>
           [ CHARACTER SET <character set specification> ]
    | <national character string type>
    | <bit string type>
    | <numeric type>
    | <datetime type>
    | <interval type>

<character string type> ::=
      CHARACTER [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | CHAR [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | CHARACTER VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | CHAR VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | VARCHAR <left paren> <length> <right paren>

<length> ::= <unsigned integer>

<national character string type> ::=
      NATIONAL CHARACTER [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | NATIONAL CHAR [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | NCHAR [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | NATIONAL CHARACTER VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | NATIONAL CHAR VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | NCHAR VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>

<bit string type> ::=
      BIT [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | BIT VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>

<numeric type> ::=
      <exact numeric type>
    | <approximate numeric type>

<exact numeric type> ::=
      NUMERIC [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | DECIMAL [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | DEC [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | INTEGER
    | INT
    | SMALLINT

<precision> ::= <unsigned integer>

<scale> ::= <unsigned integer>

<approximate numeric type> ::=
      FLOAT [ <left paren> <precision> <right paren> ]
    | REAL
    | DOUBLE PRECISION

<datetime type> ::=
      DATE
    | TIME [ <left paren> <time precision> <right paren> ]
          [ WITH TIME ZONE ]
    | TIMESTAMP [ <left paren> <timestamp precision> <right paren> ]
          [ WITH TIME ZONE ]

<time precision> ::= <time fractional seconds precision>

<time fractional seconds precision> ::= <unsigned integer>

<timestamp precision> ::= <time fractional seconds precision>

<interval type> ::= INTERVAL <interval qualifier>

<interval qualifier> ::=
      <start field> TO <end field>
    | <single datetime field>

<start field> ::=
    <non-second datetime field>
        [ <left paren> <interval leading field precision> <right paren> ]

<non-second datetime field> ::= YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR
    | MINUTE

<interval leading field precision> ::= <unsigned integer>

<end field> ::=
      <non-second datetime field>
    | SECOND [ <left paren> <interval fractional seconds precision> <right paren> ]

<interval fractional seconds precision> ::= <unsigned integer>

<single datetime field> ::=
      <non-second datetime field>
          [ <left paren> <interval leading field precision> <right paren> ]
    | SECOND [ <left paren> <interval leading field precision>
          [ <comma> <interval fractional seconds precision> ] <right paren> ]

<domain name> ::= <qualified name>

<qualified name> ::=
    [ <schema name> <period> ] <qualified identifier>

<default clause> ::=
      DEFAULT <default option>

<default option> ::=
      <literal>
    | <datetime value function>
    | USER
    | CURRENT_USER
    | SESSION_USER
    | SYSTEM_USER
    | NULL

<literal> ::=
      <signed numeric literal>
    | <general literal>

<signed numeric literal> ::=
    [ <sign> ] <unsigned numeric literal>

<general literal> ::=
      <character string literal>
    | <national character string literal>
    | <bit string literal>
    | <hex string literal>
    | <datetime literal>
    | <interval literal>

<datetime literal> ::=
      <date literal>
    | <time literal>
    | <timestamp literal>

<date literal> ::=
    DATE <date string>

<time literal> ::=
    TIME <time string>

<timestamp literal> ::=
    TIMESTAMP <timestamp string>

<interval literal> ::=
    INTERVAL [ <sign> ] <interval string> <interval qualifier>

<datetime value function> ::=
      <current date value function>
    | <current time value function>
    | <current timestamp value function>

<current date value function> ::= CURRENT_DATE

<current time value function> ::=
      CURRENT_TIME [ <left paren> <time precision> <right paren> ]

<current timestamp value function> ::=
      CURRENT_TIMESTAMP [ <left paren> <timestamp precision> <right paren> ]

<column constraint definition> ::=
    [ <constraint name definition> ]
    <column constraint>
      [ <constraint attributes> ]

<constraint name definition> ::= CONSTRAINT <constraint name>

<constraint name> ::= <qualified name>

<column constraint> ::=
      NOT NULL
    | <unique specification>
    | <references specification>
    | <check constraint definition>

<unique specification> ::=
    UNIQUE | PRIMARY KEY

<references specification> ::=
    REFERENCES <referenced table and columns>
      [ MATCH <match type> ]
      [ <referential triggered action> ]

<referenced table and columns> ::=
     <table name> [ <left paren> <reference column list> <right paren> ]

<table name> ::=
      <qualified name>
    | <qualified local table name>

<reference column list> ::= <column name list>

<column name list> ::=
    <column name> [ ( <comma> <column name> )... ]

<match type> ::=
      FULL
    | PARTIAL

<referential triggered action> ::=
      <update rule> [ <delete rule> ]
    | <delete rule> [ <update rule> ]

<update rule> ::= ON UPDATE <referential action>

<referential action> ::=
      CASCADE
    | SET NULL
    | SET DEFAULT
    | NO ACTION

<delete rule> ::= ON DELETE <referential action>

<check constraint definition> ::=
    CHECK
        <left paren> <search condition> <right paren>

<search condition> ::=
      <boolean term>
    | <search condition> OR <boolean term>

<boolean term> ::=
      <boolean factor>
    | <boolean term> AND <boolean factor>

<boolean factor> ::=
    [ NOT ] <boolean test>

<boolean test> ::=
    <boolean primary> [ IS [ NOT ]
          <truth value> ]

<boolean primary> ::=
      <predicate>
    | <left paren> <search condition> <right paren>

<predicate> ::=
      <comparison predicate>
    | <between predicate>
    | <in predicate>
    | <like predicate>
    | <null predicate>
    | <quantified comparison predicate>
    | <exists predicate>
    | <unique predicate>
    | <match predicate>
    | <overlaps predicate>

<comparison predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> <comp op>
        <row value constructor>

<row value constructor> ::=
       <row value constructor element>
    | <left paren> <row value constructor list> <right paren>
    | <row subquery>

<row value constructor element> ::=
      <value expression>
    | <null specification>
    | <default specification>

<value expression> ::=
      <numeric value expression>
    | <string value expression>
    | <datetime value expression>
    | <interval value expression>

<numeric value expression> ::=
      <term>
    | <numeric value expression> <plus sign> <term>
    | <numeric value expression> <minus sign> <term>

<term> ::=
      <factor>
    | <term> <asterisk> <factor>
    | <term> <solidus> <factor>

<factor> ::=
    [ <sign> ] <numeric primary>

<numeric primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <numeric value function>

<value expression primary> ::=
      <unsigned value specification>
    | <column reference>
    | <set function specification>
    | <scalar subquery>
    | <case expression>
    | <left paren> <value expression> <right paren>
    | <cast specification>

<unsigned value specification> ::=
      <unsigned literal>
    | <general value specification>

<unsigned literal> ::=
      <unsigned numeric literal>
    | <general literal>

<general value specification> ::=
      <parameter specification>
    | <dynamic parameter specification>
    | <variable specification>
    | USER
    | CURRENT_USER
    | SESSION_USER
    | SYSTEM_USER
    | VALUE

<parameter specification> ::=
    <parameter name> [ <indicator parameter> ]

<parameter name> ::= <colon> <identifier>

<indicator parameter> ::=
    [ INDICATOR ] <parameter name>

<dynamic parameter specification> ::= <question mark>

<variable specification> ::=
    <embedded variable name> [ <indicator variable> ]

<embedded variable name> ::=
    <colon><host identifier>

<host identifier> ::=
      <Ada host identifier>
    | <C host identifier>
    | <COBOL host identifier>
    | <Fortran host identifier>
    | <MUMPS host identifier>
    | <Pascal host identifier>
    | <PL/I host identifier>

<Ada host identifier> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<C host identifier> ::=
    !! <EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<COBOL host identifier> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<Fortran host identifier> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<MUMPS host identifier> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<Pascal host identifier> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<PL/I host identifier> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<indicator variable> ::=
    [ INDICATOR ] <embedded variable name>

<column reference> ::= [ <qualifier> <period> ] <column name>

<qualifier> ::=
      <table name>
    | <correlation name>

<correlation name> ::= <identifier>

<set function specification> ::=
      COUNT <left paren> <asterisk> <right paren>
    | <general set function>

<general set function> ::=
      <set function type>
          <left paren> [ <set quantifier> ] <value expression> <right paren>

<set function type> ::=
    AVG | MAX | MIN | SUM | COUNT

<set quantifier> ::= DISTINCT | ALL

<scalar subquery> ::= <subquery>

<subquery> ::= <left paren> <query expression> <right paren>

<query expression> ::=
      <non-join query expression>
    | <joined table>

<non-join query expression> ::=
      <non-join query term>
    | <query expression> UNION  [ ALL ]
          [ <corresponding spec> ] <query term>
    | <query expression> EXCEPT [ ALL ]
          [ <corresponding spec> ] <query term>

<non-join query term> ::=
      <non-join query primary>
    | <query term> INTERSECT [ ALL ]
          [ <corresponding spec> ] <query primary>

<non-join query primary> ::=
      <simple table>
    | <left paren> <non-join query expression> <right paren>

<simple table> ::=
      <query specification>
    | <table value constructor>
    | <explicit table>

<query specification> ::=
    SELECT [ <set quantifier> ] <select list> <table expression>

<select list> ::=
      <asterisk>
    | <select sublist> [ ( <comma> <select sublist> )... ]

<select sublist> ::=
      <derived column>
    | <qualifier> <period> <asterisk>

<derived column> ::= <value expression> [ <as clause> ]

<as clause> ::= [ AS ] <column name>

<table expression> ::=
    <from clause>
    [ <where clause> ]
    [ <group by clause> ]
    [ <having clause> ]

<from clause> ::= FROM <table reference>
    [ ( <comma> <table reference> )... ]

<table reference> ::=
      <table name> [ [ AS ] <correlation name>
          [ <left paren> <derived column list> <right paren> ] ]
    | <derived table> [ AS ] <correlation name>
          [ <left paren> <derived column list> <right paren> ]
    | <joined table>

<derived column list> ::= <column name list>

<derived table> ::= <table subquery>

<table subquery> ::= <subquery>

<joined table> ::=
      <cross join>
    | <qualified join>
    | <left paren> <joined table> <right paren>

<cross join> ::=
    <table reference> CROSS JOIN <table reference>

<qualified join> ::=
    <table reference> [ NATURAL ] [ <join type> ] JOIN
      <table reference> [ <join specification> ]

<join type> ::=
      INNER
    | <outer join type> [ OUTER ]
    | UNION

<outer join type> ::=
      LEFT
    | RIGHT
    | FULL

<join specification> ::=
      <join condition>
    | <named columns join>

<join condition> ::= ON <search condition>

<named columns join> ::=
    USING <left paren> <join column list> <right paren>

<join column list> ::= <column name list>

<where clause> ::= WHERE <search condition>

<group by clause> ::=
    GROUP BY <grouping column reference list>

<grouping column reference list> ::=
    <grouping column reference>
        [ ( <comma> <grouping column reference> )... ]

<grouping column reference> ::=
    <column reference> [ <collate clause> ]

<collate clause> ::= COLLATE <collation name>

<collation name> ::= <qualified name>

<having clause> ::= HAVING <search condition>

<table value constructor> ::=
    VALUES <table value constructor list>

<table value constructor list> ::=
    <row value constructor> [ ( <comma> <row value constructor> )... ]

<explicit table> ::= TABLE <table name>

<query term> ::=
      <non-join query term>
    | <joined table>

<corresponding spec> ::=
    CORRESPONDING [ BY <left paren> <corresponding column list> <right paren> ]

<corresponding column list> ::= <column name list>

<query primary> ::=
      <non-join query primary>
    | <joined table>

<case expression> ::=
      <case abbreviation>
    | <case specification>

<case abbreviation> ::=
      NULLIF <left paren> <value expression> <comma>
            <value expression> <right paren>
    | COALESCE <left paren> <value expression>
            ( <comma> <value expression> )... <right paren>

<case specification> ::=
      <simple case>
    | <searched case>

<simple case> ::=
    CASE <case operand>
      <simple when clause>...
      [ <else clause> ]
    END

<case operand> ::= <value expression>

<simple when clause> ::= WHEN <when operand> THEN <result>

<when operand> ::= <value expression>

<result> ::= <result expression> | NULL

<result expression> ::= <value expression>

<else clause> ::= ELSE <result>

<searched case> ::=
    CASE
      <searched when clause>...
      [ <else clause> ]
    END

<searched when clause> ::= WHEN <search condition> THEN <result>

<cast specification> ::=
    CAST <left paren> <cast operand> AS
        <cast target> <right paren>

<cast operand> ::=
      <value expression>
    | NULL

<cast target> ::=
      <domain name>
    | <data type>

<numeric value function> ::=
      <position expression>
    | <extract expression>
    | <length expression>

<position expression> ::=
    POSITION <left paren> <character value expression>
        IN <character value expression> <right paren>

<character value expression> ::=
      <concatenation>
    | <character factor>

<concatenation> ::=
    <character value expression> <concatenation operator>
        <character factor>

<character factor> ::=
    <character primary> [ <collate clause> ]

<character primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <string value function>

<string value function> ::=
      <character value function>
    | <bit value function>

<character value function> ::=
      <character substring function>
    | <fold>
    | <form-of-use conversion>
    | <character translation>
    | <trim function>

<character substring function> ::=
    SUBSTRING <left paren> <character value expression> FROM <start position>
                [ FOR <string length> ] <right paren>

<start position> ::= <numeric value expression>

<string length> ::= <numeric value expression>

<fold> ::= ( UPPER | LOWER )
     <left paren> <character value expression> <right paren>

<form-of-use conversion> ::=
    CONVERT <left paren> <character value expression>
        USING <form-of-use conversion name> <right paren>

<form-of-use conversion name> ::= <qualified name>

<character translation> ::=
    TRANSLATE <left paren> <character value expression>
        USING <translation name> <right paren>

<translation name> ::= <qualified name>

<trim function> ::=
    TRIM <left paren> <trim operands> <right paren>

<trim operands> ::=
    [ [ <trim specification> ] [ <trim character> ] FROM ] <trim source>

<trim specification> ::=
      LEADING
    | TRAILING
    | BOTH

<trim character> ::= <character value expression>

<trim source> ::= <character value expression>

<bit value function> ::=
    <bit substring function>

<bit substring function> ::=
    SUBSTRING <left paren> <bit value expression> FROM <start position>
        [ FOR <string length> ] <right paren>

<bit value expression> ::=
      <bit concatenation>
    | <bit factor>

<bit concatenation> ::=
    <bit value expression> <concatenation operator> <bit factor>

<bit factor> ::= <bit primary>

<bit primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <string value function>

<extract expression> ::=
    EXTRACT <left paren> <extract field>
        FROM <extract source> <right paren>

<extract field> ::=
      <datetime field>
    | <time zone field>

<datetime field> ::=
      <non-second datetime field>
    | SECOND

<time zone field> ::=
      TIMEZONE_HOUR
    | TIMEZONE_MINUTE

<extract source> ::=
      <datetime value expression>
    | <interval value expression>

<datetime value expression> ::=
      <datetime term>
    | <interval value expression> <plus sign> <datetime term>
    | <datetime value expression> <plus sign> <interval term>
    | <datetime value expression> <minus sign> <interval term>

<interval term> ::=
      <interval factor>
    | <interval term 2> <asterisk> <factor>
    | <interval term 2> <solidus> <factor>
    | <term> <asterisk> <interval factor>

<interval factor> ::=
    [ <sign> ] <interval primary>

<interval primary> ::=
      <value expression primary> [ <interval qualifier> ]

<interval term 2> ::= <interval term>

<interval value expression> ::=
      <interval term>
    | <interval value expression 1> <plus sign> <interval term 1>
    | <interval value expression 1> <minus sign> <interval term 1>
    | <left paren> <datetime value expression> <minus sign>
          <datetime term> <right paren> <interval qualifier>

<interval value expression 1> ::= <interval value expression>

<interval term 1> ::= <interval term>

<datetime term> ::=
      <datetime factor>

<datetime factor> ::=
      <datetime primary> [ <time zone> ]

<datetime primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <datetime value function>

<time zone> ::=
    AT <time zone specifier>

<time zone specifier> ::=
      LOCAL
    | TIME ZONE <interval value expression>

<length expression> ::=
      <char length expression>
    | <octet length expression>
    | <bit length expression>

<char length expression> ::=
    ( CHAR_LENGTH | CHARACTER_LENGTH )
        <left paren> <string value expression> <right paren>

<string value expression> ::=
      <character value expression>
    | <bit value expression>

<octet length expression> ::=
    OCTET_LENGTH <left paren> <string value expression> <right paren>

<bit length expression> ::=
    BIT_LENGTH <left paren> <string value expression> <right paren>

<null specification> ::=
    NULL

<default specification> ::=
    DEFAULT

<row value constructor list> ::=
    <row value constructor element>
        [ ( <comma> <row value constructor element> )... ]

<row subquery> ::= <subquery>

<comp op> ::=
      <equals operator>
    | <not equals operator>
    | <less than operator>
    | <greater than operator>
    | <less than or equals operator>
    | <greater than or equals operator>

<between predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> [ NOT ] BETWEEN
      <row value constructor> AND <row value constructor>

<in predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor>
      [ NOT ] IN <in predicate value>

<in predicate value> ::=
      <table subquery>
    | <left paren> <in value list> <right paren>

<in value list> ::=
    <value expression> ( <comma> <value expression> )...

<like predicate> ::=
    <match value> [ NOT ] LIKE <pattern>
      [ ESCAPE <escape character> ]

<match value> ::= <character value expression>

<pattern> ::= <character value expression>

<escape character> ::= <character value expression>

<null predicate> ::= <row value constructor>
    IS [ NOT ] NULL

<quantified comparison predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> <comp op> <quantifier> <table subquery>

<quantifier> ::= <all> | <some>

<all> ::= ALL

<some> ::= SOME | ANY

<exists predicate> ::= EXISTS <table subquery>

<unique predicate> ::= UNIQUE <table subquery>

<match predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> MATCH [ UNIQUE ]
        [ PARTIAL | FULL ] <table subquery>

<overlaps predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor 1> OVERLAPS <row value constructor 2>

<row value constructor 1> ::= <row value constructor>

<row value constructor 2> ::= <row value constructor>

<truth value> ::=
      TRUE
    | FALSE
    | UNKNOWN

<constraint attributes> ::=
      <constraint check time> [ [ NOT ] DEFERRABLE ]
    | [ NOT ] DEFERRABLE [ <constraint check time> ]

<constraint check time> ::=
      INITIALLY DEFERRED
    | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE

<table constraint definition> ::=
    [ <constraint name definition> ]
    <table constraint> [ <constraint attributes> ]

<table constraint> ::=
      <unique constraint definition>
    | <referential constraint definition>
    | <check constraint definition>

<unique constraint definition> ::=
            <unique specification> even in SQL3)
    <unique specification>
      <left paren> <unique column list> <right paren>

<unique column list> ::= <column name list>

<referential constraint definition> ::=
    FOREIGN KEY
        <left paren> <referencing columns> <right paren>
      <references specification>

<referencing columns> ::=
    <reference column list>

<module contents> ::=
      <declare cursor>
    | <dynamic declare cursor>
    | <procedure>

<declare cursor> ::=
    DECLARE <cursor name> [ INSENSITIVE ] [ SCROLL ] CURSOR
      FOR <cursor specification>

<cursor name> ::= <identifier>

<cursor specification> ::=
    <query expression> [ <order by clause> ]
      [ <updatability clause> ]

<order by clause> ::=
    ORDER BY <sort specification list>

<sort specification list> ::=
    <sort specification> [ ( <comma> <sort specification> )... ]

<sort specification> ::=
    <sort key> [ <collate clause> ] [ <ordering specification> ]

<sort key> ::=
      <column name>
    | <unsigned integer>

<ordering specification> ::= ASC | DESC

<updatability clause> ::=
    FOR
        ( READ ONLY |
          UPDATE [ OF <column name list> ] )

<dynamic declare cursor> ::=
    DECLARE <cursor name> [ INSENSITIVE ] [ SCROLL ] CURSOR
        FOR <statement name>

<statement name> ::= <identifier>

<procedure> ::=
    PROCEDURE <procedure name>
        <parameter declaration list> <semicolon>
      <SQL procedure statement> <semicolon>

<procedure name> ::= <identifier>

<parameter declaration list> ::=
      <left paren> <parameter declaration>
          [ ( <comma> <parameter declaration> )... ] <right paren>
    | <parameter declaration>...

<parameter declaration> ::=
      <parameter name> <data type>
    | <status parameter>

<status parameter> ::=
    SQLCODE | SQLSTATE

<SQL procedure statement> ::=
      <SQL schema statement>
    | <SQL data statement>
    | <SQL transaction statement>
    | <SQL connection statement>
    | <SQL session statement>
    | <SQL dynamic statement>
    | <SQL diagnostics statement>

<SQL schema statement> ::=
      <SQL schema definition statement>
    | <SQL schema manipulation statement>

<SQL schema definition statement> ::=
      <schema definition>
    | <table definition>
    | <view definition>
    | <grant statement>
    | <domain definition>
    | <character set definition>
    | <collation definition>
    | <translation definition>
    | <assertion definition>

<schema definition> ::=
    CREATE SCHEMA <schema name clause>
      [ <schema character set specification> ]
      [ <schema element>... ]

<schema name clause> ::=
      <schema name>
    | AUTHORIZATION <schema authorization identifier>
    | <schema name> AUTHORIZATION
          <schema authorization identifier>

<schema authorization identifier> ::=
    <authorization identifier>

<schema character set specification> ::=
    DEFAULT CHARACTER
        SET <character set specification>

<schema element> ::=
      <domain definition>
    | <table definition>
    | <view definition>
    | <grant statement>
    | <assertion definition>
    | <character set definition>
    | <collation definition>
    | <translation definition>

<domain definition> ::=
    CREATE DOMAIN <domain name>
        [ AS ] <data type>
      [ <default clause> ]
      [ <domain constraint>... ]
      [ <collate clause> ]

<domain constraint> ::=
    [ <constraint name definition> ]
    <check constraint definition> [ <constraint attributes> ]

<table definition> ::=
    CREATE [ ( GLOBAL | LOCAL ) TEMPORARY ] TABLE
        <table name>
      <table element list>
      [ ON COMMIT ( DELETE | PRESERVE ) ROWS ]

<view definition> ::=
    CREATE VIEW <table name> [ <left paren> <view column list>
                                  <right paren> ]
      AS <query expression>
      [ WITH [ <levels clause> ] CHECK OPTION ]

<view column list> ::= <column name list>

<levels clause> ::=
    CASCADED | LOCAL

<grant statement> ::=
   GRANT <privileges> ON <object name>
     TO <grantee> [ ( <comma> <grantee> )... ]
       [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

<privileges> ::=
      ALL PRIVILEGES
    | <action list>

<action list> ::= <action> [ ( <comma> <action> )... ]

<action> ::=
      SELECT
    | DELETE
    | INSERT [ <left paren> <privilege column list> <right paren> ]
    | UPDATE [ <left paren> <privilege column list> <right paren> ]
    | REFERENCES [ <left paren> <privilege column list> <right paren> ]
    | USAGE

<privilege column list> ::= <column name list>

<object name> ::=
      [ TABLE ] <table name>
    | DOMAIN <domain name>
    | COLLATION <collation name>
    | CHARACTER SET <character set name>
    | TRANSLATION <translation name>

<grantee> ::=
      PUBLIC
    | <authorization identifier>

<assertion definition> ::=
    CREATE ASSERTION <constraint name> <assertion check>
      [ <constraint attributes> ]

<assertion check> ::=
    CHECK
        <left paren> <search condition> <right paren>

<character set definition> ::=
    CREATE CHARACTER SET <character set name>
        [ AS ]
      <character set source>
      [ <collate clause> | <limited collation definition> ]

<character set source> ::=
      GET <existing character set name>

<existing character set name> ::=
      <standard character repertoire name>
    | <implementation-defined character repertoire name>
    | <schema character set name>

<schema character set name> ::= <character set name>

<limited collation definition> ::=
    COLLATION FROM <collation source>

<collation source> ::=
      <collating sequence definition>
    | <translation collation>

<collating sequence definition> ::=
      <external collation>
    | <schema collation name>
    | DESC <left paren> <collation name> <right paren>
    | DEFAULT

<external collation> ::=
    EXTERNAL <left paren> <quote> <external collation name> <quote> <right paren>

<external collation name> ::=
      <standard collation name>
    | <implementation-defined collation name>

<standard collation name> ::= <collation name>

<implementation-defined collation name> ::= <collation name>

<schema collation name> ::= <collation name>

<translation collation> ::=
    TRANSLATION <translation name>
        [ THEN COLLATION <collation name> ]

<collation definition> ::=
    CREATE COLLATION <collation name> FOR
        <character set specification>
      FROM <collation source>
        [ <pad attribute> ]

<pad attribute> ::=
      NO PAD
    | PAD SPACE

<translation definition> ::=
    CREATE TRANSLATION <translation name>
      FOR <source character set specification>
        TO <target character set specification>
      FROM <translation source>

<source character set specification> ::= <character set specification>

<target character set specification> ::= <character set specification>

<translation source> ::=
      <translation specification>

<translation specification> ::=
      <external translation>
    | IDENTITY
    | <schema translation name>

<external translation> ::=
    EXTERNAL <left paren> <quote> <external translation name> <quote> <right paren>

<external translation name> ::=
      <standard translation name>
    | <implementation-defined translation name>

<standard translation name> ::= <translation name>

<implementation-defined translation name> ::= <translation name>

<schema translation name> ::= <translation name>

<SQL schema manipulation statement> ::=
      <drop schema statement>
    | <alter table statement>
    | <drop table statement>
    | <drop view statement>
    | <revoke statement>
    | <alter domain statement>
    | <drop domain statement>
    | <drop character set statement>
    | <drop collation statement>
    | <drop translation statement>
    | <drop assertion statement>

<drop schema statement> ::=
    DROP SCHEMA <schema name> <drop behavior>

<drop behavior> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICT

<alter table statement> ::=
    ALTER TABLE <table name> <alter table action>

<alter table action> ::=
      <add column definition>
    | <alter column definition>
    | <drop column definition>
    | <add table constraint definition>
    | <drop table constraint definition>

<add column definition> ::=
    ADD [ COLUMN ] <column definition>

<alter column definition> ::=
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] <column name> <alter column action>

<alter column action> ::=
      <set column default clause>
    | <drop column default clause>

<set column default clause> ::=
    SET <default clause>

<drop column default clause> ::=
    DROP DEFAULT

<drop column definition> ::=
    DROP [ COLUMN ] <column name> <drop behavior>

<add table constraint definition> ::=
    ADD <table constraint definition>

<drop table constraint definition> ::=
    DROP CONSTRAINT <constraint name> <drop behavior>

<drop table statement> ::=
    DROP TABLE <table name> <drop behavior>

<drop view statement> ::=
    DROP VIEW <table name> <drop behavior>

<revoke statement> ::=
    REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
        <privileges>
        ON <object name>
      FROM <grantee> [ ( <comma> <grantee> )... ] <drop behavior>

<alter domain statement> ::=
    ALTER DOMAIN <domain name> <alter domain action>

<alter domain action> ::=
      <set domain default clause>
    | <drop domain default clause>
    | <add domain constraint definition>
    | <drop domain constraint definition>

<set domain default clause> ::= SET <default clause>

<drop domain default clause> ::= DROP DEFAULT

<add domain constraint definition> ::=
    ADD <domain constraint>

<drop domain constraint definition> ::=
    DROP CONSTRAINT <constraint name>

<drop domain statement> ::=
    DROP DOMAIN <domain name> <drop behavior>

<drop character set statement> ::=
    DROP CHARACTER SET <character set name>

<drop collation statement> ::=
    DROP COLLATION <collation name>

<drop translation statement> ::=
    DROP TRANSLATION <translation name>

<drop assertion statement> ::=
    DROP ASSERTION <constraint name>

<SQL data statement> ::=
      <open statement>
    | <fetch statement>
    | <close statement>
    | <select statement: single row>
    | <SQL data change statement>

<open statement> ::=
    OPEN <cursor name>

<fetch statement> ::=
    FETCH [ [ <fetch orientation> ] FROM ]
      <cursor name> INTO <fetch target list>

<fetch orientation> ::=
      NEXT
    | PRIOR
    | FIRST
    | LAST
    | ( ABSOLUTE | RELATIVE ) <simple value specification>

<simple value specification> ::=
      <parameter name>
    | <embedded variable name>
    | <literal>

<fetch target list> ::=
    <target specification> [ ( <comma> <target specification> )... ]

<target specification> ::=
      <parameter specification>
    | <variable specification>

<close statement> ::=
    CLOSE <cursor name>

<select statement: single row> ::=
    SELECT [ <set quantifier> ] <select list>
      INTO <select target list>
        <table expression>

<select target list> ::=
    <target specification> [ ( <comma> <target specification> )... ]

<SQL data change statement> ::=
      <delete statement: positioned>
    | <delete statement: searched>
    | <insert statement>
    | <update statement: positioned>
    | <update statement: searched>

<delete statement: positioned> ::=
    DELETE FROM <table name>
      WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>

<delete statement: searched> ::=
    DELETE FROM <table name>
      [ WHERE <search condition> ]

<insert statement> ::=
    INSERT INTO <table name>
      <insert columns and source>

<insert columns and source> ::=
      [ <left paren> <insert column list> <right paren> ]
            <query expression>
    | DEFAULT VALUES

<insert column list> ::= <column name list>

<update statement: positioned> ::=
    UPDATE <table name>
      SET <set clause list>
        WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>

<set clause list> ::=
    <set clause> [ ( <comma> <set clause> )... ]

<set clause> ::=
    <object column> <equals operator> <update source>

<object column> ::= <column name>

<update source> ::=
      <value expression>
    | <null specification>
    | DEFAULT

<update statement: searched> ::=
    UPDATE <table name>
      SET <set clause list>
      [ WHERE <search condition> ]

<SQL transaction statement> ::=
      <set transaction statement>
    | <set constraints mode statement>
    | <commit statement>
    | <rollback statement>

<set transaction statement> ::=
    SET TRANSACTION <transaction mode>
        [ ( <comma> <transaction mode> )... ]

<transaction mode> ::=
      <isolation level>
    | <transaction access mode>
    | <diagnostics size>

<isolation level> ::=
    ISOLATION LEVEL <level of isolation>

<level of isolation> ::=
      READ UNCOMMITTED
    | READ COMMITTED
    | REPEATABLE READ
    | SERIALIZABLE

<transaction access mode> ::=
      READ ONLY
    | READ WRITE

<diagnostics size> ::=
    DIAGNOSTICS SIZE <number of conditions>

<number of conditions> ::= <simple value specification>

<set constraints mode statement> ::=
    SET CONSTRAINTS <constraint name list>
        ( DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE )

<constraint name list> ::=
      ALL
    | <constraint name> [ ( <comma> <constraint name> )... ]

<commit statement> ::=
    COMMIT [ WORK ]

<rollback statement> ::=
    ROLLBACK [ WORK ]

<SQL connection statement> ::=
      <connect statement>
    | <set connection statement>
    | <disconnect statement>

<connect statement> ::=
    CONNECT TO <connection target>

<connection target> ::=
      <SQL-server name>
        [ AS <connection name> ]
          correspondence with Tony Gordon)
        [ USER <user name> ]
    | DEFAULT

<SQL-server name> ::= <simple value specification>

<connection name> ::= <simple value specification>

<user name> ::= <simple value specification>

<set connection statement> ::=
    SET CONNECTION <connection object>

<connection object> ::=
      DEFAULT
    | <connection name>

<disconnect statement> ::=
    DISCONNECT <disconnect object>

<disconnect object> ::=
      <connection object>
    | ALL
    | CURRENT

<SQL session statement> ::=
      <set catalog statement>
    | <set schema statement>
    | <set names statement>
    | <set session authorization identifier statement>
    | <set local time zone statement>

<set catalog statement> ::=
    SET CATALOG <value specification>

<value specification> ::=
      <literal>
    | <general value specification>

<set schema statement> ::=
    SET SCHEMA <value specification>

<set names statement> ::=
    SET NAMES <value specification>

<set session authorization identifier statement> ::=
    SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
        <value specification>

<set local time zone statement> ::=
    SET TIME ZONE
        <set time zone value>

<set time zone value> ::=
      <interval value expression>
    | LOCAL

<SQL dynamic statement> ::=
      <system descriptor statement>
    | <prepare statement>
    | <deallocate prepared statement>
    | <describe statement>
    | <execute statement>
    | <execute immediate statement>
    | <SQL dynamic data statement>

<system descriptor statement> ::=
      <allocate descriptor statement>
    | <deallocate descriptor statement>
    | <set descriptor statement>
    | <get descriptor statement>

<allocate descriptor statement> ::=
    ALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>
       [ WITH MAX <occurrences> ]

<descriptor name> ::=
    [ <scope option> ] <simple value specification>

<scope option> ::=
      GLOBAL
    | LOCAL

<occurrences> ::= <simple value specification>

<deallocate descriptor statement> ::=
    DEALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>

<set descriptor statement> ::=
    SET DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>
        <set descriptor information>

<set descriptor information> ::=
      <set count>
    | VALUE <item number>
        <set item information> [ ( <comma> <set item information> )... ]

<set count> ::=
    COUNT <equals operator> <simple value specification 1>

<simple value specification 1> ::= <simple value specification>

<item number> ::= <simple value specification>

<set item information> ::=
    <descriptor item name> <equals operator> <simple value specification 2>

<descriptor item name> ::=
      TYPE
    | LENGTH
    | OCTET_LENGTH
    | RETURNED_LENGTH
    | RETURNED_OCTET_LENGTH
    | PRECISION
    | SCALE
    | DATETIME_INTERVAL_CODE
    | DATETIME_INTERVAL_PRECISION
    | NULLABLE
    | INDICATOR
    | DATA
    | NAME
    | UNNAMED
    | COLLATION_CATALOG
    | COLLATION_SCHEMA
    | COLLATION_NAME
    | CHARACTER_SET_CATALOG
    | CHARACTER_SET_SCHEMA
    | CHARACTER_SET_NAME

<simple value specification 2> ::= <simple value specification>

<item number> ::= <simple value specification>

<get descriptor statement> ::=
    GET DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name> <get descriptor information>

<get descriptor information> ::=
      <get count>
    | VALUE <item number>
        <get item information> [ ( <comma> <get item information> )... ]

<get count> ::=
    <simple target specification 1> <equals operator>
         COUNT

<simple target specification 1> ::= <simple target specification>

<simple target specification> ::=
      <parameter name>
    | <embedded variable name>

<get item information> ::=
    <simple target specification 2> <equals operator> <descriptor item name>>

<simple target specification 2> ::= <simple target specification>

<prepare statement> ::=
    PREPARE <SQL statement name> FROM <SQL statement variable>

<SQL statement name> ::=
      <statement name>
    | <extended statement name>

<extended statement name> ::=
    [ <scope option> ] <simple value specification>

<SQL statement variable> ::= <simple value specification>

<deallocate prepared statement> ::=
    DEALLOCATE PREPARE <SQL statement name>

<describe statement> ::=
      <describe input statement>
    | <describe output statement>

<describe input statement> ::=
    DESCRIBE INPUT <SQL statement name> <using descriptor>

<using descriptor> ::=
    ( USING | INTO ) SQL DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>

<describe output statement> ::=
    DESCRIBE [ OUTPUT ] <SQL statement name> <using descriptor>

<execute statement> ::=
    EXECUTE <SQL statement name>
      [ <result using clause> ]
      [ <parameter using clause> ]

<result using clause> ::= <using clause>

<using clause> ::=
      <using arguments>
    | <using descriptor>

<using arguments> ::=
    ( USING | INTO ) <argument> [ ( <comma> <argument> )... ]

<argument> ::= <target specification>

<parameter using clause> ::= <using clause>

<execute immediate statement> ::=
    EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <SQL statement variable>

<SQL dynamic data statement> ::=
      <allocate cursor statement>
    | <dynamic open statement>
    | <dynamic fetch statement>
    | <dynamic close statement>
    | <dynamic delete statement: positioned>
    | <dynamic update statement: positioned>

<allocate cursor statement> ::=
    ALLOCATE <extended cursor name> [ INSENSITIVE ]
        [ SCROLL ] CURSOR
      FOR <extended statement name>

<extended cursor name> ::=
    [ <scope option> ] <simple value specification>

<dynamic open statement> ::=
    OPEN <dynamic cursor name> [ <using clause> ]

<dynamic cursor name> ::=
      <cursor name>
    | <extended cursor name>

<dynamic fetch statement> ::=
    FETCH [ [ <fetch orientation> ] FROM ] <dynamic cursor name>
        <using clause>

<dynamic close statement> ::=
    CLOSE <dynamic cursor name>

<dynamic delete statement: positioned> ::=
    DELETE FROM <table name>
      WHERE CURRENT OF
          <dynamic cursor name>

<dynamic update statement: positioned> ::=
    UPDATE <table name>
      SET <set clause>
          [ ( <comma> <set clause> )... ]
        WHERE CURRENT OF
            <dynamic cursor name>

<SQL diagnostics statement> ::=
    <get diagnostics statement>

<get diagnostics statement> ::=
    GET DIAGNOSTICS <sql diagnostics information>

<sql diagnostics information> ::=
      <statement information>
    | <condition information>

<statement information> ::=
    <statement information item> [ ( <comma> <statement information item> )... ]

<statement information item> ::=
    <simple target specification> <equals operator> <statement information item name>

<statement information item name> ::=
      NUMBER
    | MORE
    | COMMAND_FUNCTION
    | DYNAMIC_FUNCTION
    | ROW_COUNT

<condition information> ::=
    EXCEPTION <condition number>
      <condition information item> [ ( <comma> <condition information item> )... ]

<condition number> ::= <simple value specification>

<condition information item> ::=
    <simple target specification> <equals operator> <condition information item name>

<condition information item name> ::=
      CONDITION_NUMBER
    | RETURNED_SQLSTATE
    | CLASS_ORIGIN
    | SUBCLASS_ORIGIN
    | SERVER_NAME
    | CONNECTION_NAME
    | CONSTRAINT_CATALOG
    | CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA
    | CONSTRAINT_NAME
    | CATALOG_NAME
    | SCHEMA_NAME
    | TABLE_NAME
    | COLUMN_NAME
    | CURSOR_NAME
    | MESSAGE_TEXT
    | MESSAGE_LENGTH
    | MESSAGE_OCTET_LENGTH

<embedded SQL host program> ::=
      <embedded SQL Ada program>
    | <embedded SQL C program>
    | <embedded SQL COBOL program>
    | <embedded SQL Fortran program>
    | <embedded SQL MUMPS program>
    | <embedded SQL Pascal program>
    | <embedded SQL PL/I program>

<embedded SQL Ada program> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<embedded SQL C program> ::=
      !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<embedded SQL COBOL program> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<embedded SQL Fortran program> ::=
    !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<embedded SQL MUMPS program> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<embedded SQL Pascal program> ::=
    !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<embedded SQL PL/I program> ::= !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<embedded SQL declare section> ::=
      <embedded SQL begin declare>
        [ <embedded character set declaration> ]
        [ <host variable definition>... ]
      <embedded SQL end declare>
    | <embedded SQL MUMPS declare>

<embedded SQL begin declare> ::=
    <SQL prefix> BEGIN DECLARE SECTION
        [ <SQL terminator> ]

<SQL prefix> ::=
      EXEC SQL
    | <ampersand>SQL<left paren>

<SQL terminator> ::=
      END-EXEC
    | <semicolon>
    | <right paren>

<embedded character set declaration> ::=
    SQL NAMES ARE <character set specification>

<host variable definition> ::=
      <Ada variable definition>
    | <C variable definition>
    | <COBOL variable definition>
    | <Fortran variable definition>
    | <MUMPS variable definition>
    | <Pascal variable definition>
    | <PL/I variable definition>

<Ada variable definition> ::=
    <Ada host identifier> [ ( <comma> <Ada host identifier> )... ] :
    <Ada type specification> [ <Ada initial value> ]

<Ada type specification> ::=
      <Ada qualified type specification>
    | <Ada unqualified type specification>

<Ada qualified type specification> ::=
      SQL_STANDARD.CHAR [ CHARACTER SET
         [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | SQL_STANDARD.BIT
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | SQL_STANDARD.SMALLINT
    | SQL_STANDARD.INT
    | SQL_STANDARD.REAL
    | SQL_STANDARD.DOUBLE_PRECISION
    | SQL_STANDARD.SQLCODE_TYPE
    | SQL_STANDARD.SQLSTATE_TYPE
    | SQL_STANDARD.INDICATOR_TYPE

<Ada unqualified type specification> ::=
      CHAR
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | BIT
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | SMALLINT
    | INT
    | REAL
    | DOUBLE_PRECISION
    | SQLCODE_TYPE
    | SQLSTATE_TYPE
    | INDICATOR_TYPE

<Ada initial value> ::=
    <Ada assignment operator> <character representation>...

<Ada assignment operator> ::= <colon><equals operator>

<C variable definition> ::=
      [ <C storage class> ]
      [ <C class modifier> ]
      <C variable specification>
    <semicolon>

<C storage class> ::=
      auto
    | extern
    | static

<C class modifier> ::= const | volatile

<C variable specification> ::=
      <C numeric variable>
    | <C character variable>
    | <C derived variable>

<C numeric variable> ::=
    ( long | short | float | double )
      <C host identifier> [ <C initial value> ]
            [ ( <comma> <C host identifier> [ <C initial value> ] )... ]

<C initial value> ::=
    <equals operator> <character representation>...

<C character variable> ::=
    char [ CHARACTER SET
             [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
      <C host identifier>
        <C array specification> [ <C initial value> ]
        [ ( <comma> <C host identifier>
          <C array specification>
                 [ <C initial value> ] )... ]

<C array specification> ::=
    <left bracket> <length> <right bracket>

<C derived variable> ::=
      <C VARCHAR variable>
    | <C bit variable>

<C VARCHAR variable> ::=
    VARCHAR [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
        <character set specification> ]
        <C host identifier>
            <C array specification> [ <C initial value> ]
          [ ( <comma> <C host identifier>
              <C array specification>
                      [ <C initial value> ] )... ]

<C bit variable> ::=
    BIT <C host identifier>
        <C array specification> [ <C initial value> ]
      [ ( <comma> <C host identifier>
        <C array specification>
                   [ <C initial value> ] )... ]

<COBOL variable definition> ::=
    (01|77) <COBOL host identifier> <COBOL type specification>
      [ <character representation>... ] <period>

<COBOL type specification> ::=
      <COBOL character type>
    | <COBOL bit type>
    | <COBOL numeric type>
    | <COBOL integer type>

<COBOL character type> ::=
    [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
          <character set specification> ]
    ( PIC | PICTURE ) [ IS ] ( X [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ] )...

<COBOL bit type> ::=
    ( PIC | PICTURE ) [ IS ]
        ( B [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ] )...

<COBOL numeric type> ::=
    ( PIC | PICTURE ) [ IS ]
      S <COBOL nines specification>
    [ USAGE [ IS ] ] DISPLAY SIGN LEADING SEPARATE

<COBOL nines specification> ::=
      <COBOL nines> [ V [ <COBOL nines> ] ]
    | V <COBOL nines>

<COBOL nines> ::= ( 9 [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ] )...

<COBOL integer type> ::=
      <COBOL computational integer>
    | <COBOL binary integer>

<COBOL computational integer> ::=
    ( PIC | PICTURE ) [ IS ] S<COBOL nines>
      [ USAGE [ IS ] ] ( COMP | COMPUTATIONAL )

<COBOL binary integer> ::=
    ( PIC | PICTURE ) [ IS ] S<COBOL nines>
      [ USAGE [ IS ] ] BINARY

<Fortran variable definition> ::=
    <Fortran type specification>
    <Fortran host identifier>
        [ ( <comma> <Fortran host identifier> )... ]

<Fortran type specification> ::=
      CHARACTER [ <asterisk> <length> ]
          [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
                <character set specification> ]
    | BIT [ <asterisk> <length> ]
    | INTEGER
    | REAL
    | DOUBLE PRECISION

<MUMPS variable definition> ::=
    ( <MUMPS numeric variable> | <MUMPS character variable> )
        <semicolon>

<MUMPS numeric variable> ::=
    <MUMPS type specification>
      <MUMPS host identifier> [ ( <comma> <MUMPS host identifier> )... ]

<MUMPS type specification> ::=
      INT
    | DEC
          [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | REAL

<MUMPS character variable> ::=
    VARCHAR <MUMPS host identifier> <MUMPS length specification>
      [ ( <comma> <MUMPS host identifier> <MUMPS length specification> )... ]

<MUMPS length specification> ::=
    <left paren> <length> <right paren>

<Pascal variable definition> ::=
    <Pascal host identifier> [ ( <comma> <Pascal host identifier> )... ] <colon>
      <Pascal type specification> <semicolon>

<Pascal type specification> ::=
      PACKED ARRAY
          <left bracket> 1 <double period> <length> <right bracket>
        OF CHAR
          [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
                <character set specification> ]
    | PACKED ARRAY
          <left bracket> 1 <double period> <length> <right bracket>
        OF BIT
    | INTEGER
    | REAL
    | CHAR [ CHARACTER SET
                                [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
    | BIT

<PL/I variable definition> ::=
    (DCL | DECLARE)
        (   <PL/I host identifier>
          | <left paren> <PL/I host identifier>
                [ ( <comma> <PL/I host identifier> )... ] <right paren> )
    <PL/I type specification>
    [ <character representation>... ] <semicolon>

<PL/I type specification> ::=
      ( CHAR | CHARACTER ) [ VARYING ]
          <left paren><length><right paren>
          [ CHARACTER SET
                [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
    | BIT [ VARYING ] <left paren><length><right paren>
    | <PL/I type fixed decimal> <left paren> <precision>
          [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren>
    | <PL/I type fixed binary> [ <left paren> <precision> <right paren> ]
    | <PL/I type float binary> <left paren> <precision> <right paren>

<PL/I type fixed decimal> ::=
      ( DEC | DECIMAL ) FIXED
    | FIXED ( DEC | DECIMAL )

<PL/I type fixed binary> ::=
      ( BIN | BINARY ) FIXED
    | FIXED ( BIN | BINARY )

<PL/I type float binary> ::=
      ( BIN | BINARY ) FLOAT
    | FLOAT ( BIN | BINARY )

<embedded SQL end declare> ::=
    <SQL prefix> END DECLARE SECTION
        [ <SQL terminator> ]

<embedded SQL MUMPS declare> ::=
    <SQL prefix>
      BEGIN DECLARE SECTION
        [ <embedded character set declaration> ]
        [ <host variable definition>... ]
      END DECLARE SECTION
    <SQL terminator>

<embedded SQL statement> ::=
    <SQL prefix>
      <statement or declaration>
    [ <SQL terminator> ]

<statement or declaration> ::=
      <declare cursor>
    | <dynamic declare cursor>
    | <temporary table declaration>
    | <embedded exception declaration>
    | <SQL procedure statement>

<embedded exception declaration> ::=
    WHENEVER <condition> <condition action>

<condition> ::=
    SQLERROR | NOT FOUND

<condition action> ::=
    CONTINUE | <go to>

<go to> ::=
    ( GOTO | GO TO ) <goto target>

<goto target> ::=
      <host label identifier>
    | <unsigned integer>
    | <host PL/I label variable>

<host label identifier> ::= !!<EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<host PL/I label variable> ::= !!<EMPHASIS>(参看文法规则)

<preparable statement> ::=
      <preparable SQL data statement>
    | <preparable SQL schema statement>
    | <preparable SQL transaction statement>
    | <preparable SQL session statement>
    | <preparable implementation-defined statement>

<preparable SQL data statement> ::=
      <delete statement: searched>
    | <dynamic single row select statement>
    | <insert statement>
    | <dynamic select statement>
    | <update statement: searched>
    | <preparable dynamic delete statement: positioned>
    | <preparable dynamic update statement: positioned>

<dynamic single row select statement> ::= <query specification>

<dynamic select statement> ::= <cursor specification>

<preparable dynamic delete statement: positioned> ::=
   DELETE [ FROM <table name> ]
      WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>

<preparable dynamic update statement: positioned> ::=
   UPDATE [ <table name> ]
      SET <set clause list>
      WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>

<preparable SQL schema statement> ::=
      <SQL schema statement>

<preparable SQL transaction statement> ::=
      <SQL transaction statement>

<preparable SQL session statement> ::=
      <SQL session statement>

<preparable implementation-defined statement> ::=
    !! <EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules.)

<direct SQL statement> ::=
    <directly executable statement> <semicolon>

<directly executable statement> ::=
      <direct SQL data statement>
    | <SQL schema statement>
    | <SQL transaction statement>
    | <SQL connection statement>
    | <SQL session statement>
    | <direct implementation-defined statement>

<direct SQL data statement> ::=
      <delete statement: searched>
    | <direct select statement: multiple rows>
    | <insert statement>
    | <update statement: searched>
    | <temporary table declaration>

<direct select statement: multiple rows> ::=
    <query expression> [ <order by clause> ]

<direct implementation-defined statement> ::=
    !!<EMPHASIS>(See the Syntax Rules)

<SQL object identifier> ::=
    <SQL provenance> <SQL variant>

<SQL provenance> ::= <arc1> <arc2> <arc3>

<arc1> ::= iso | 1 | iso <left paren> 1 <right paren>

<arc2> ::= standard | 0 | standard <left paren> 0 <right paren>

<arc3> ::= 9075

<SQL variant> ::= <SQL edition> <SQL conformance>

<SQL edition> ::= <1987> | <1989> | <1992>

<1987> ::= 0 | edition1987 <left paren> 0 <right paren>

<1989> ::= <1989 base> <1989 package>

<1989 base> ::= 1 | edition1989 <left paren> 1 <right paren>

<1989 package> ::= <integrity no> | <integrity yes>

<integrity no> ::= 0 | IntegrityNo <left paren> 0 <right paren>

<integrity yes> ::= 1 | IntegrityYes <left paren> 1 <right paren>

<1992> ::= 2 | edition1992 <left paren> 2 <right paren>

<SQL conformance> ::= <low> | <intermediate> | <high>

<low> ::= 0 | Low <left paren> 0 <right paren>

<intermediate> ::= 1 | Intermediate <left paren> 1 <right paren>

<high> ::= 2 | High <left paren> 2 <right paren>

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