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Graphics Contexts

Graphics Contexts — Objects to encapsulate drawing properties

Synopsis


#include <gdk/gdk.h>


            GdkGC;
            GdkGCValues;
enum        GdkGCValuesMask;
enum        GdkFunction;
GdkGC*      gdk_gc_new                      (GdkDrawable *drawable);
GdkGC*      gdk_gc_new_with_values          (GdkDrawable *drawable,
                                             GdkGCValues *values,
                                             GdkGCValuesMask values_mask);
GdkScreen*  gdk_gc_get_screen               (GdkGC *gc);
GdkGC*      gdk_gc_ref                      (GdkGC *gc);
void        gdk_gc_unref                    (GdkGC *gc);
#define     gdk_gc_destroy
void        gdk_gc_set_values               (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkGCValues *values,
                                             GdkGCValuesMask values_mask);
void        gdk_gc_get_values               (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkGCValues *values);
void        gdk_gc_set_foreground           (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);
void        gdk_gc_set_background           (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);
void        gdk_gc_set_rgb_fg_color         (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);
void        gdk_gc_set_rgb_bg_color         (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);
void        gdk_gc_set_font                 (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkFont *font);
void        gdk_gc_set_function             (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkFunction function);
void        gdk_gc_set_fill                 (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkFill fill);
enum        GdkFill;
void        gdk_gc_set_tile                 (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkPixmap *tile);
void        gdk_gc_set_stipple              (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkPixmap *stipple);
void        gdk_gc_set_ts_origin            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint x,
                                             gint y);
void        gdk_gc_set_clip_origin          (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint x,
                                             gint y);
void        gdk_gc_set_clip_mask            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkBitmap *mask);
void        gdk_gc_set_clip_rectangle       (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkRectangle *rectangle);
void        gdk_gc_set_clip_region          (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkRegion *region);
void        gdk_gc_set_subwindow            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkSubwindowMode mode);
enum        GdkSubwindowMode;
void        gdk_gc_set_exposures            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gboolean exposures);
void        gdk_gc_set_line_attributes      (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint line_width,
                                             GdkLineStyle line_style,
                                             GdkCapStyle cap_style,
                                             GdkJoinStyle join_style);
enum        GdkLineStyle;
enum        GdkCapStyle;
enum        GdkJoinStyle;
void        gdk_gc_set_dashes               (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint dash_offset,
                                             gint8 dash_list[],
                                             gint n);
void        gdk_gc_copy                     (GdkGC *dst_gc,
                                             GdkGC *src_gc);
void        gdk_gc_set_colormap             (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkColormap *colormap);
GdkColormap* gdk_gc_get_colormap            (GdkGC *gc);
void        gdk_gc_offset                   (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint x_offset,
                                             gint y_offset);


Object Hierarchy


  GObject
   +----GdkGC

Description

All drawing operations in GDK take a graphics context (GC) argument. A graphics context encapsulates information about the way things are drawn, such as the foreground color or line width. By using graphics contexts, the number of arguments to each drawing call is greatly reduced, and communication overhead is minimized, since identical arguments do not need to be passed repeatedly.

Most values of a graphics context can be set at creation time by using gdk_gc_new_with_values(), or can be set one-by-one using functions such as gdk_gc_set_foreground(). A few of the values in the GC, such as the dash pattern, can only be set by the latter method.

Details

GdkGC

typedef struct _GdkGC GdkGC;

The GdkGC structure represents a graphics context. It is an opaque structure with no user-visible elements.


GdkGCValues

typedef struct {
  GdkColor	    foreground;
  GdkColor	    background;
  GdkFont	   *font;
  GdkFunction	    function;
  GdkFill	    fill;
  GdkPixmap	   *tile;
  GdkPixmap	   *stipple;
  GdkPixmap	   *clip_mask;
  GdkSubwindowMode  subwindow_mode;
  gint		    ts_x_origin;
  gint		    ts_y_origin;
  gint		    clip_x_origin;
  gint		    clip_y_origin;
  gint		    graphics_exposures;
  gint		    line_width;
  GdkLineStyle	    line_style;
  GdkCapStyle	    cap_style;
  GdkJoinStyle	    join_style;
} GdkGCValues;

The GdkGCValues structure holds a set of values used to create or modify a graphics context.

GdkColor foreground;the foreground color. Note that gdk_gc_get_values() only sets the pixel value.
GdkColor background;the background color. Note that gdk_gc_get_values() only sets the pixel value.
GdkFont *font;the default font.
GdkFunction function;the bitwise operation used when drawing.
GdkFill fill;the fill style.
GdkPixmap *tile;the tile pixmap.
GdkPixmap *stipple;the stipple bitmap.
GdkPixmap *clip_mask;the clip mask bitmap.
GdkSubwindowMode subwindow_mode;the subwindow mode.
gint ts_x_origin;the x origin of the tile or stipple.
gint ts_y_origin;the y origin of the tile or stipple.
gint clip_x_origin;the x origin of the clip mask.
gint clip_y_origin;the y origin of the clip mask.
gint graphics_exposures;whether graphics exposures are enabled.
gint line_width;the line width.
GdkLineStyle line_style;the way dashed lines are drawn.
GdkCapStyle cap_style;the way the ends of lines are drawn.
GdkJoinStyle join_style;the way joins between lines are drawn.

enum GdkGCValuesMask

typedef enum
{
  GDK_GC_FOREGROUND    = 1 << 0,
  GDK_GC_BACKGROUND    = 1 << 1,
  GDK_GC_FONT	       = 1 << 2,
  GDK_GC_FUNCTION      = 1 << 3,
  GDK_GC_FILL	       = 1 << 4,
  GDK_GC_TILE	       = 1 << 5,
  GDK_GC_STIPPLE       = 1 << 6,
  GDK_GC_CLIP_MASK     = 1 << 7,
  GDK_GC_SUBWINDOW     = 1 << 8,
  GDK_GC_TS_X_ORIGIN   = 1 << 9,
  GDK_GC_TS_Y_ORIGIN   = 1 << 10,
  GDK_GC_CLIP_X_ORIGIN = 1 << 11,
  GDK_GC_CLIP_Y_ORIGIN = 1 << 12,
  GDK_GC_EXPOSURES     = 1 << 13,
  GDK_GC_LINE_WIDTH    = 1 << 14,
  GDK_GC_LINE_STYLE    = 1 << 15,
  GDK_GC_CAP_STYLE     = 1 << 16,
  GDK_GC_JOIN_STYLE    = 1 << 17
} GdkGCValuesMask;

A set of bit flags used to indicate which fields GdkGCValues structure are set.

GDK_GC_FOREGROUNDthe foreground is set.
GDK_GC_BACKGROUNDthe background is set.
GDK_GC_FONTthe font is set.
GDK_GC_FUNCTIONthe function is set.
GDK_GC_FILLthe fill is set.
GDK_GC_TILEthe tile is set.
GDK_GC_STIPPLEthe stipple is set.
GDK_GC_CLIP_MASKthe clip_mask is set.
GDK_GC_SUBWINDOWthe subwindow_mode is set.
GDK_GC_TS_X_ORIGINthe ts_x_origin is set.
GDK_GC_TS_Y_ORIGINthe ts_y_origin is set.
GDK_GC_CLIP_X_ORIGINthe clip_x_origin is set.
GDK_GC_CLIP_Y_ORIGINthe clip_y_origin is set.
GDK_GC_EXPOSURESthe graphics_exposures is set.
GDK_GC_LINE_WIDTHthe line_width is set.
GDK_GC_LINE_STYLEthe line_style is set.
GDK_GC_CAP_STYLEthe cap_style is set.
GDK_GC_JOIN_STYLEthe join_style is set.

enum GdkFunction

typedef enum
{
  GDK_COPY,
  GDK_INVERT,
  GDK_XOR,
  GDK_CLEAR,
  GDK_AND,
  GDK_AND_REVERSE,
  GDK_AND_INVERT,
  GDK_NOOP,
  GDK_OR,
  GDK_EQUIV,
  GDK_OR_REVERSE,
  GDK_COPY_INVERT,
  GDK_OR_INVERT,
  GDK_NAND,
  GDK_NOR,
  GDK_SET
} GdkFunction;

Determines how the bit values for the source pixels are combined with the bit values for destination pixels to produce the final result. The sixteen values here correspond to the 16 different possible 2x2 truth tables. Only a couple of these values are usually useful; for colored images, only GDK_COPY, GDK_XOR and GDK_INVERT are generally useful. For bitmaps, GDK_AND and GDK_OR are also useful.


gdk_gc_new ()

GdkGC*      gdk_gc_new                      (GdkDrawable *drawable);

Create a new graphics context with default values.

drawable : a GdkDrawable. The created GC must always be used with drawables of the same depth as this one.
Returns : the new graphics context.

gdk_gc_new_with_values ()

GdkGC*      gdk_gc_new_with_values          (GdkDrawable *drawable,
                                             GdkGCValues *values,
                                             GdkGCValuesMask values_mask);

Create a new GC with the given initial values.

drawable : a GdkDrawable. The created GC must always be used with drawables of the same depth as this one.
values : a structure containing initial values for the GC.
values_mask : a bit mask indicating which fields in values are set.
Returns : the new graphics context.

gdk_gc_get_screen ()

GdkScreen*  gdk_gc_get_screen               (GdkGC *gc);

Gets the GdkScreen for which gc was created

gc : a GdkGC.
Returns : the GdkScreen for gc.

Since 2.2


gdk_gc_ref ()

GdkGC*      gdk_gc_ref                      (GdkGC *gc);

Warning

gdk_gc_ref is deprecated and should not be used in newly-written code.

Deprecated function; use g_object_ref() instead.

gc : a GdkGC
Returns : the gc.

gdk_gc_unref ()

void        gdk_gc_unref                    (GdkGC *gc);

Warning

gdk_gc_unref is deprecated and should not be used in newly-written code. Use g_object_unref() instead.

Decrement the reference count of gc.

gc : a GdkGC

gdk_gc_destroy

#define gdk_gc_destroy                 gdk_gc_unref

Warning

gdk_gc_destroy is deprecated and should not be used in newly-written code. Use gdk_object_unref() instead

This function is obsolete and should not be used.


gdk_gc_set_values ()

void        gdk_gc_set_values               (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkGCValues *values,
                                             GdkGCValuesMask values_mask);

Sets attributes of a graphics context in bulk. For each flag set in values_mask, the corresponding field will be read from values and set as the new value for gc. If you're only setting a few values on gc, calling individual "setter" functions is likely more convenient.

gc : a GdkGC
values : struct containing the new values
values_mask : mask indicating which struct fields are to be used

gdk_gc_get_values ()

void        gdk_gc_get_values               (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkGCValues *values);

Retrieves the current values from a graphics context. Note that only the pixel values of the values->foreground and values->background are filled, use gdk_colormap_query_color() to obtain the rgb values if you need them.

gc : a GdkGC.
values : the GdkGCValues structure in which to store the results.

gdk_gc_set_foreground ()

void        gdk_gc_set_foreground           (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);

Sets the foreground color for a graphics context. Note that this function uses color->pixel, use gdk_gc_set_rgb_fg_color() to specify the foreground color as red, green, blue components.

gc : a GdkGC.
color : the new foreground color.

gdk_gc_set_background ()

void        gdk_gc_set_background           (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);

Sets the background color for a graphics context. Note that this function uses color->pixel, use gdk_gc_set_rgb_bg_color() to specify the background color as red, green, blue components.

gc : a GdkGC.
color : the new background color.

gdk_gc_set_rgb_fg_color ()

void        gdk_gc_set_rgb_fg_color         (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);

Set the foreground color of a GC using an unallocated color. The pixel value for the color will be determined using GdkRGB. If the colormap for the GC has not previously been initialized for GdkRGB, then for pseudo-color colormaps (colormaps with a small modifiable number of colors), a colorcube will be allocated in the colormap.

Calling this function for a GC without a colormap is an error.

gc : a GdkGC
color : an unallocated GdkColor.

gdk_gc_set_rgb_bg_color ()

void        gdk_gc_set_rgb_bg_color         (GdkGC *gc,
                                             const GdkColor *color);

Set the background color of a GC using an unallocated color. The pixel value for the color will be determined using GdkRGB. If the colormap for the GC has not previously been initialized for GdkRGB, then for pseudo-color colormaps (colormaps with a small modifiable number of colors), a colorcube will be allocated in the colormap.

Calling this function for a GC without a colormap is an error.

gc : a GdkGC
color : an unallocated GdkColor.

gdk_gc_set_font ()

void        gdk_gc_set_font                 (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkFont *font);

Warning

gdk_gc_set_font is deprecated and should not be used in newly-written code.

Sets the font for a graphics context. (Note that all text-drawing functions in GDK take a font argument; the value set here is used when that argument is NULL.)

gc : a GdkGC.
font : the new font.

gdk_gc_set_function ()

void        gdk_gc_set_function             (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkFunction function);

Determines how the current pixel values and the pixel values being drawn are combined to produce the final pixel values.

gc : a GdkGC.
function : the GdkFunction to use

gdk_gc_set_fill ()

void        gdk_gc_set_fill                 (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkFill fill);

Set the fill mode for a graphics context.

gc : a GdkGC.
fill : the new fill mode.

enum GdkFill

typedef enum
{
  GDK_SOLID,
  GDK_TILED,
  GDK_STIPPLED,
  GDK_OPAQUE_STIPPLED
} GdkFill;

Determines how primitives are drawn.

GDK_SOLIDdraw with the foreground color.
GDK_TILEDdraw with a tiled pixmap.
GDK_STIPPLEDdraw using the stipple bitmap. Pixels corresponding to bits in the stipple bitmap that are set will be drawn in the foreground color; pixels corresponding to bits that are not set will be left untouched.
GDK_OPAQUE_STIPPLEDdraw using the stipple bitmap. Pixels corresponding to bits in the stipple bitmap that are set will be drawn in the foreground color; pixels corresponding to bits that are not set will be drawn with the background color.

gdk_gc_set_tile ()

void        gdk_gc_set_tile                 (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkPixmap *tile);

Set a tile pixmap for a graphics context. This will only be used if the fill mode is GDK_TILED.

gc : a GdkGC.
tile : the new tile pixmap.

gdk_gc_set_stipple ()

void        gdk_gc_set_stipple              (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkPixmap *stipple);

Set the stipple bitmap for a graphics context. The stipple will only be used if the fill mode is GDK_STIPPLED or GDK_OPAQUE_STIPPLED.

gc : a GdkGC.
stipple : the new stipple bitmap.

gdk_gc_set_ts_origin ()

void        gdk_gc_set_ts_origin            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint x,
                                             gint y);

Set the origin when using tiles or stipples with the GC. The tile or stipple will be aligned such that the upper left corner of the tile or stipple will coincide with this point.

gc : a GdkGC.
x : the x-coordinate of the origin.
y : the y-coordinate of the origin.

gdk_gc_set_clip_origin ()

void        gdk_gc_set_clip_origin          (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint x,
                                             gint y);

Sets the origin of the clip mask. The coordinates are interpreted relative to the upper-left corner of the destination drawable of the current operation.

gc : a GdkGC.
x : the x-coordinate of the origin.
y : the y-coordinate of the origin.

gdk_gc_set_clip_mask ()

void        gdk_gc_set_clip_mask            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkBitmap *mask);

Sets the clip mask for a graphics context from a bitmap. The clip mask is interpreted relative to the clip origin. (See gdk_gc_set_clip_origin()).

gc : the GdkGC.
mask : a bitmap.

gdk_gc_set_clip_rectangle ()

void        gdk_gc_set_clip_rectangle       (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkRectangle *rectangle);

Sets the clip mask for a graphics context from a rectangle. The clip mask is interpreted relative to the clip origin. (See gdk_gc_set_clip_origin()).

gc : a GdkGC.
rectangle : the rectangle to clip to.

gdk_gc_set_clip_region ()

void        gdk_gc_set_clip_region          (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkRegion *region);

Sets the clip mask for a graphics context from a region structure. The clip mask is interpreted relative to the clip origin. (See gdk_gc_set_clip_origin()).

gc : a GdkGC.
region : the GdkRegion.

gdk_gc_set_subwindow ()

void        gdk_gc_set_subwindow            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkSubwindowMode mode);

Sets how drawing with this GC on a window will affect child windows of that window.

gc : a GdkGC.
mode : the subwindow mode.

enum GdkSubwindowMode

typedef enum
{
  GDK_CLIP_BY_CHILDREN	= 0,
  GDK_INCLUDE_INFERIORS = 1
} GdkSubwindowMode;

Determines how drawing onto a window will affect child windows of that window.

GDK_CLIP_BY_CHILDRENonly draw onto the window itself.
GDK_INCLUDE_INFERIORSdraw onto the window and child windows.

gdk_gc_set_exposures ()

void        gdk_gc_set_exposures            (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gboolean exposures);

Sets whether copying non-visible portions of a drawable using this graphics context generate exposure events for the corresponding regions of the destination drawable. (See gdk_draw_drawable()).

gc : a GdkGC.
exposures : if TRUE, exposure events will be generated.

gdk_gc_set_line_attributes ()

void        gdk_gc_set_line_attributes      (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint line_width,
                                             GdkLineStyle line_style,
                                             GdkCapStyle cap_style,
                                             GdkJoinStyle join_style);

Sets various attributes of how lines are drawn. See the corresponding members of GdkGCValues for full explanations of the arguments.

gc : a GdkGC.
line_width : the width of lines.
line_style : the dash-style for lines.
cap_style : the manner in which the ends of lines are drawn.
join_style : the in which lines are joined together.

enum GdkLineStyle

typedef enum
{
  GDK_LINE_SOLID,
  GDK_LINE_ON_OFF_DASH,
  GDK_LINE_DOUBLE_DASH
} GdkLineStyle;

Determines how lines are drawn.

GDK_LINE_SOLIDlines are drawn solid.
GDK_LINE_ON_OFF_DASHeven segments are drawn; odd segments are not drawn.
GDK_LINE_DOUBLE_DASHeven segments are normally. Odd segments are drawn in the background color if the fill style is GDK_SOLID, or in the background color masked by the stipple if the fill style is GDK_STIPPLED.

enum GdkCapStyle

typedef enum
{
  GDK_CAP_NOT_LAST,
  GDK_CAP_BUTT,
  GDK_CAP_ROUND,
  GDK_CAP_PROJECTING
} GdkCapStyle;

Determines how the end of lines are drawn.

GDK_CAP_NOT_LASTthe same as GDK_CAP_BUTT for lines of non-zero width. for zero width lines, the final point on the line will not be drawn.
GDK_CAP_BUTTthe ends of the lines are drawn squared off and extending to the coordinates of the end point.
GDK_CAP_ROUNDthe ends of the lines are drawn as semicircles with the diameter equal to the line width and centered at the end point.
GDK_CAP_PROJECTINGthe ends of the lines are drawn squared off and extending half the width of the line beyond the end point.

enum GdkJoinStyle

typedef enum
{
  GDK_JOIN_MITER,
  GDK_JOIN_ROUND,
  GDK_JOIN_BEVEL
} GdkJoinStyle;

Determines how the joins between segments of a polygon are drawn.

GDK_JOIN_MITERthe sides of each line are extended to meet at an angle.
GDK_JOIN_ROUNDthe sides of the two lines are joined by a circular arc.
GDK_JOIN_BEVELthe sides of the two lines are joined by a straight line which makes an equal angle with each line.

gdk_gc_set_dashes ()

void        gdk_gc_set_dashes               (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint dash_offset,
                                             gint8 dash_list[],
                                             gint n);

Sets the way dashed-lines are drawn. Lines will be drawn with alternating on and off segments of the lengths specified in dash_list. The manner in which the on and off segments are drawn is determined by the line_style value of the GC. (This can be changed with gdk_gc_set_line_attributes().)

The dash_offset defines the phase of the pattern, specifying how many pixels into the dash-list the pattern should actually begin.

gc : a GdkGC.
dash_offset : the phase of the dash pattern.
dash_list : an array of dash lengths.
n : the number of elements in dash_list.

gdk_gc_copy ()

void        gdk_gc_copy                     (GdkGC *dst_gc,
                                             GdkGC *src_gc);

Copy the set of values from one graphics context onto another graphics context.

dst_gc : the destination graphics context.
src_gc : the source graphics context.

gdk_gc_set_colormap ()

void        gdk_gc_set_colormap             (GdkGC *gc,
                                             GdkColormap *colormap);

Sets the colormap for the GC to the given colormap. The depth of the colormap's visual must match the depth of the drawable for which the GC was created.

gc : a GdkGC
colormap : a GdkColormap

gdk_gc_get_colormap ()

GdkColormap* gdk_gc_get_colormap            (GdkGC *gc);

Retrieves the colormap for a given GC, if it exists. A GC will have a colormap if the drawable for which it was created has a colormap, or if a colormap was set explicitely with gdk_gc_set_colormap.

gc : a GdkGC
Returns : the colormap of gc, or NULL if gc doesn't have one.

gdk_gc_offset ()

void        gdk_gc_offset                   (GdkGC *gc,
                                             gint x_offset,
                                             gint y_offset);

Offset attributes such as the clip and tile-stipple origins of the GC so that drawing at x - x_offset, y - y_offset with the offset GC has the same effect as drawing at x, y with the original GC.

gc : a GdkGC
x_offset : amount by which to offset the GC in the X direction
y_offset : amount by which to offset the GC in the Y direction