<< Back to man.ChinaUnix.net

11.12 One-Pointed Mind

As a student of Zen, I like the idea of a one-pointed mind: Do one thing at a time, and do it well.

This, indeed, is very much how UNIX® works as well. While a typical Windows® application is attempting to do everything imaginable (and is, therefore, riddled with bugs), a typical UNIX program does only one thing, and it does it well.

The typical UNIX user then essentially assembles his own applications by writing a shell script which combines the various existing programs by piping the output of one program to the input of another.

When writing your own UNIX software, it is generally a good idea to see what parts of the problem you need to solve can be handled by existing programs, and only write your own programs for that part of the problem that you do not have an existing solution for.

11.12.1 CSV

I will illustrate this principle with a specific real-life example I was faced with recently:

I needed to extract the 11th field of each record from a database I downloaded from a web site. The database was a CSV file, i.e., a list of comma-separated values. That is quite a standard format for sharing data among people who may be using different database software.

The first line of the file contains the list of various fields separated by commas. The rest of the file contains the data listed line by line, with values separated by commas.

I tried awk, using the comma as a separator. But because several lines contained a quoted comma, awk was extracting the wrong field from those lines.

Therefore, I needed to write my own software to extract the 11th field from the CSV file. However, going with the UNIX spirit, I only needed to write a simple filter that would do the following:

Strictly speaking, I could use sed to remove the first line from the file, but doing so in my own program was very easy, so I decided to do it and reduce the size of the pipeline.

At any rate, writing a program like this took me about 20 minutes. Writing a program that extracts the 11th field from the CSV file would take a lot longer, and I could not reuse it to extract some other field from some other database.

This time I decided to let it do a little more work than a typical tutorial program would:

Here is its usage message:

Usage: csv [-t<delim>] [-c<comma>] [-p] [-o <outfile>] [-i <infile>]

All parameters are optional, and can appear in any order.

The -t parameter declares what to replace the commas with. The tab is the default here. For example, -t; will replace all unquoted commas with semicolons.

I did not need the -c option, but it may come in handy in the future. It lets me declare that I want a character other than a comma replaced with something else. For example, -c@ will replace all at signs (useful if you want to split a list of email addresses to their user names and domains).

The -p option preserves the first line, i.e., it does not delete it. By default, we delete the first line because in a CSV file it contains the field names rather than data.

The -i and -o options let me specify the input and the output files. Defaults are stdin and stdout, so this is a regular UNIX filter.

I made sure that both -i filename and -ifilename are accepted. I also made sure that only one input and one output files may be specified.

To get the 11th field of each record, I can now do:

% csv '-t;' data.csv | awk '-F;' '{print $11}'

The code stores the options (except for the file descriptors) in EDX: The comma in DH, the new separator in DL, and the flag for the -p option in the highest bit of EDX, so a check for its sign will give us a quick decision what to do.

Here is the code:

;;;;;;; csv.asm ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;
; Convert a comma-separated file to a something-else separated file.
;
; Started:  31-May-2001
; Updated:   1-Jun-2001
;
; Copyright (c) 2001 G. Adam Stanislav
; All rights reserved.
;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

%include    'system.inc'

%define BUFSIZE 2048

section .data
fd.in   dd  stdin
fd.out  dd  stdout
usg db  'Usage: csv [-t<delim>] [-c<comma>] [-p] [-o <outfile>] [-i <infile>]', 0Ah
usglen  equ $-usg
iemsg   db  "csv: Can't open input file", 0Ah
iemlen  equ $-iemsg
oemsg   db  "csv: Can't create output file", 0Ah
oemlen  equ $-oemsg

section .bss
ibuffer resb    BUFSIZE
obuffer resb    BUFSIZE

section .text
align 4
ierr:
    push    dword iemlen
    push    dword iemsg
    push    dword stderr
    sys.write
    push    dword 1     ; return failure
    sys.exit

align 4
oerr:
    push    dword oemlen
    push    dword oemsg
    push    dword stderr
    sys.write
    push    dword 2
    sys.exit

align 4
usage:
    push    dword usglen
    push    dword usg
    push    dword stderr
    sys.write
    push    dword 3
    sys.exit

align 4
global  _start
_start:
    add esp, byte 8 ; discard argc and argv[0]
    mov edx, (',' << 8) | 9

.arg:
    pop ecx
    or  ecx, ecx
    je  near .init      ; no more arguments

    ; ECX contains the pointer to an argument
    cmp byte [ecx], '-'
    jne usage

    inc ecx
    mov ax, [ecx]

.o:
    cmp al, 'o'
    jne .i

    ; Make sure we are not asked for the output file twice
    cmp dword [fd.out], stdout
    jne usage

    ; Find the path to output file - it is either at [ECX+1],
    ; i.e., -ofile --
    ; or in the next argument,
    ; i.e., -o file

    inc ecx
    or  ah, ah
    jne .openoutput
    pop ecx
    jecxz   usage

.openoutput:
    push    dword 420   ; file mode (644 octal)
    push    dword 0200h | 0400h | 01h
    ; O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_WRONLY
    push    ecx
    sys.open
    jc  near oerr

    add esp, byte 12
    mov [fd.out], eax
    jmp short .arg

.i:
    cmp al, 'i'
    jne .p

    ; Make sure we are not asked twice
    cmp dword [fd.in], stdin
    jne near usage

    ; Find the path to the input file
    inc ecx
    or  ah, ah
    jne .openinput
    pop ecx
    or  ecx, ecx
    je near usage

.openinput:
    push    dword 0     ; O_RDONLY
    push    ecx
    sys.open
    jc  near ierr       ; open failed

    add esp, byte 8
    mov [fd.in], eax
    jmp .arg

.p:
    cmp al, 'p'
    jne .t
    or  ah, ah
    jne near usage
    or  edx, 1 << 31
    jmp .arg

.t:
    cmp al, 't'     ; redefine output delimiter
    jne .c
    or  ah, ah
    je  near usage
    mov dl, ah
    jmp .arg

.c:
    cmp al, 'c'
    jne near usage
    or  ah, ah
    je  near usage
    mov dh, ah
    jmp .arg

align 4
.init:
    sub eax, eax
    sub ebx, ebx
    sub ecx, ecx
    mov edi, obuffer

    ; See if we are to preserve the first line
    or  edx, edx
    js  .loop

.firstline:
    ; get rid of the first line
    call    getchar
    cmp al, 0Ah
    jne .firstline

.loop:
    ; read a byte from stdin
    call    getchar

    ; is it a comma (or whatever the user asked for)?
    cmp al, dh
    jne .quote

    ; Replace the comma with a tab (or whatever the user wants)
    mov al, dl

.put:
    call    putchar
    jmp short .loop

.quote:
    cmp al, '"'
    jne .put

    ; Print everything until you get another quote or EOL. If it
    ; is a quote, skip it. If it is EOL, print it.
.qloop:
    call    getchar
    cmp al, '"'
    je  .loop

    cmp al, 0Ah
    je  .put

    call    putchar
    jmp short .qloop

align 4
getchar:
    or  ebx, ebx
    jne .fetch

    call    read

.fetch:
    lodsb
    dec ebx
    ret

read:
    jecxz   .read
    call    write

.read:
    push    dword BUFSIZE
    mov esi, ibuffer
    push    esi
    push    dword [fd.in]
    sys.read
    add esp, byte 12
    mov ebx, eax
    or  eax, eax
    je  .done
    sub eax, eax
    ret

align 4
.done:
    call    write       ; flush output buffer

    ; close files
    push    dword [fd.in]
    sys.close

    push    dword [fd.out]
    sys.close

    ; return success
    push    dword 0
    sys.exit

align 4
putchar:
    stosb
    inc ecx
    cmp ecx, BUFSIZE
    je  write
    ret

align 4
write:
    jecxz   .ret    ; nothing to write
    sub edi, ecx    ; start of buffer
    push    ecx
    push    edi
    push    dword [fd.out]
    sys.write
    add esp, byte 12
    sub eax, eax
    sub ecx, ecx    ; buffer is empty now
.ret:
    ret

Much of it is taken from hex.asm above. But there is one important difference: I no longer call write whenever I am outputting a line feed. Yet, the code can be used interactively.

I have found a better solution for the interactive problem since I first started writing this chapter. I wanted to make sure each line is printed out separately only when needed. After all, there is no need to flush out every line when used non-interactively.

The new solution I use now is to call write every time I find the input buffer empty. That way, when running in the interactive mode, the program reads one line from the user's keyboard, processes it, and sees its input buffer is empty. It flushes its output and reads the next line.

11.12.1.1 The Dark Side of Buffering

This change prevents a mysterious lockup in a very specific case. I refer to it as the dark side of buffering, mostly because it presents a danger that is not quite obvious.

It is unlikely to happen with a program like the csv above, so let us consider yet another filter: In this case we expect our input to be raw data representing color values, such as the red, green, and blue intensities of a pixel. Our output will be the negative of our input.

Such a filter would be very simple to write. Most of it would look just like all the other filters we have written so far, so I am only going to show you its inner loop:

.loop:
    call    getchar
    not al      ; Create a negative
    call    putchar
    jmp short .loop

Because this filter works with raw data, it is unlikely to be used interactively.

But it could be called by image manipulation software. And, unless it calls write before each call to read, chances are it will lock up.

Here is what might happen:

  1. The image editor will load our filter using the C function popen().

  2. It will read the first row of pixels from a bitmap or pixmap.

  3. It will write the first row of pixels to the pipe leading to the fd.in of our filter.

  4. Our filter will read each pixel from its input, turn it to a negative, and write it to its output buffer.

  5. Our filter will call getchar to fetch the next pixel.

  6. getchar will find an empty input buffer, so it will call read.

  7. read will call the SYS_read system call.

  8. The kernel will suspend our filter until the image editor sends more data to the pipe.

  9. The image editor will read from the other pipe, connected to the fd.out of our filter so it can set the first row of the output image before it sends us the second row of the input.

  10. The kernel suspends the image editor until it receives some output from our filter, so it can pass it on to the image editor.

At this point our filter waits for the image editor to send it more data to process, while the image editor is waiting for our filter to send it the result of the processing of the first row. But the result sits in our output buffer.

The filter and the image editor will continue waiting for each other forever (or, at least, until they are killed). Our software has just entered a race condition.

This problem does not exist if our filter flushes its output buffer before asking the kernel for more input data.

This, and other documents, can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/.

For questions about FreeBSD, read the documentation before contacting <questions@FreeBSD.org>.
For questions about this documentation, e-mail <doc@FreeBSD.org>.